In this lesson, we will study these 4 stages.Each stage of the life cycle has its very own characteristics.

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This table summarizes the marketing objective, 4Ps, and competition in each among the four stages of the life cycle.

Marketing ObjectiveGain AwarenessStress DifferentiationMaintain Brand LoyaltyHarvesting, DeletionCompetitionProductPricePlace (distribution)Promotion
OneMore versionsFull product lineBest sellers
Skimming or penetrationGain industry share, dealDefend sector share, profitStay profitable
LimitedMore outletsMaximum outletsFewer outlets
Inform, educateStress clues of differenceReminder-orientedMinimal promotion

Introduction Stage

This is the phase in i beg your pardon the life cycle starts. The product is a brand new offering in this stage.

Characteristics of the advent stage include:

Profit is minimal, and negative in countless cases.Sales prosper slowly as the promotional efforts raise awareness for the brand-new product.The marketing target in the development stage is to create consumer awareness and stimulate trial.The score is come initiate the initial acquisition of the product through consumers.

Companies often spend greatly on proclaiming in the introduction stage. Structure awareness and also stimulating product psychological requires big spending in marketing activities. Advertising and also promotion expenditures are regularly made come stimulate main demand. Primary need refers to demand for the product class rather than demand for a specific brand. When the life bicycle progresses, rivals come in and also introduce their own brands. In those step companies emphasis on producing selective demand, i beg your pardon is the need for a certain brand.

Pricing in the introduction stage might be either high or low. A high early stage price is known as skimming pricing strategy. It help the agency recover the high expenses of advancement and commercialization. One more benefit the skimming pricing is the it permits the agency to take advantage of the price insensitivity of at an early stage buyers.

There room disadvantages that skimming pricing strategy, among which is the high prices tend to tempt competitors. Other firms see high prices as a signal the high profits. In order come discourage competitors, businesses deserve to start their initial supplying with a short price. This kind of pricing is well-known as penetration pricing strategy. This pricing strategy usually boosts the sale volume, which is appropriate to develop up industry share. We will cover this pricing strategies and also many more in the comes lessons.

Stop and also Think Question:Why do you think profit would certainly be negative in the arrival stage?

Click to reveal answer

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Businesses spend huge sums the money in research and advance as well together commercialization of new products. Because of high early costs, profit at first would be negative.


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Growth Stage

This is the second stage in the life cycle. It complies with the arrival stage. Qualities of the growth stage include:

We commonly observe rapid boosts in sales. Sales boost at raising rate.Competitors start to show up in the market.Profit typically peaks throughout the expansion stage.

Businesses focus on stimulating selective need in your advertising. The score is to compare their product’s services to those that competitors" offerings in stimulate to gain market share.Businesses add brand-new features to the original style of the product in this stage. The idea is to identify the company"s brand from those the its competitors.

The marketing objective in the expansion stage is to anxiety points of difference. The goal is to construct market share by highlighting the superior characteristics of the product versus competitive products (stress differentiation).


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Example:E-book reading from Kindle or various other tablets deserve to be offered as an example of a product in the expansion stage.

Maturity Stage

The maturity stage adheres to the expansion stage in the life cycle. Attributes of the maturity phase inlcude:

Sales rise at a decreasing rate at the maturity stage and also profit starts to decline. The reason is due to the fact that of fierce price competition amongst many sellers in the market.Marketing fist in the maturity phase is often directed towards holding sector share through further product differentiation and finding brand-new buyers.The marketing objective in the maturity stage is to maintain brand commitment with reminder orientation. The firm built its sector share in the growth stage, now it is the moment to maintain and hold the sector share.

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Example:Soft drinks and also presweetened cereals room some commodities in their maturity stage.

Decline Stage

The decrease stage is the last stage of the life cycle. Qualities of the decline stage include:

Sales and profits decline.The product is perfect the life cycle.Environmental components play a vital role in beginning the decline stage. That is not since of any wrong strategy on the part of the company.

In many cases, technological innovation is the reason behind the decline stage as more recent technologies change older technologies. For example, typewriters are replaced by computers. Cloud an innovation is replacing USB drives and other warehouse devices.


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Example:Examples of products in the decrease stage would be analogue TVs and desktop computers.

There space two techniques a firm might monitor in the decrease stage.

1. Deletion: The agency simply clears the product native the market. That is the most drastic strategy because that a decreasing product. The firm still would need to attend to the existent users of the product with any support or maintain if needed. It might take time to remove the product completely.


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Example:Sanford still continues to offer its Liquid paper correction fluid. That is largely used in typewriters and also has not lot of a require in the era of word-processing equipment.

2. Harvesting: The company retains the product however reduces marketing assistance costs. The product proceeds to be readily available in the market, but salespeople perform not clues time in marketing the product. The agency does not apply any kind of promotional campaigns to the product, and also no money is invested in advertising the product.


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Example:Coca-Cola tho sells Tab. The is the very first diet cola, and is retained for a little group of die-hard fans. Follow to Coke’s CEO, “It reflects you care. We want to make sure those who desire Tab acquire Tab.”

Length and also Shape of the Product Life Cycle

Above we have actually seen the 4 stages of the life cycle. Now, we turn our attention to the length and also shape that the product life cycle.

Length of the Product Life Cycle

There is no precise time the a product takes to relocate through the life cycle. The is not possible to understand ahead the time when a product will move from development to expansion to maturity and also finally to the decline stage. Normally consumer assets have much shorter life cycles than do organization products. Together a an outcome of 24/7 connectivity, consumers are informed about brand-new technologies and also products faster, i beg your pardon shortens the life cycles of existent products. An innovation is the pressure behind innovation and also leads to the breakthrough of new products which replace the existing ones.

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Shape of the Product Life Cycle

There are 4 product species that follow specific life bike shapes.