Contents

attributes of muscles attributes of muscle tissue varieties of muscles examples of muscles Muscle activities Roots, suffixes, and also prefixes Cancer focus Related Abbreviations and Acronyms further Resources

Functions that muscles

The main function of muscles is for motion, for example inconjunction through bones for walking. Countless muscles job-related in groups but some might work alone e.g.the diaphragm because that breathing, and also the heart because that circulatingblood.

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Characteristics of muscle tissue

Irritability(excitability) muscle receive and respond come stimulation.Contractability allows muscles to adjust shape come become shorter and thicker.Extendibility life muscle cells have the right to be stretched and extended; longer and also thinner.Elasticity when the stretching force is gotten rid of a life muscle cell retains it"s initial shape.

Types the muscles

Different types of muscle respond, contract, and also relax atdifferent rates.

Skeletal musclesare striated (have distinctbands) comprised of fibres (long cells). The cells aremultinucleated (many cell nuclei) and also contract and also relaxquickly. These are voluntary muscles attached to theskeleton that help to relocate the bones. There are practically 700skeletal muscle spread almost everywhere the body.Visceral musclesare smooth and also without banding. Theyhave short fibres and solitary cell nuclei. These room involuntarymuscles e.g. Uncovered in walls of blood vessels and viscera (organsin the abdominal muscle cavity).Cardiac muscles room striated (but lessdistinct than skeletal muscles), and also are involuntary .

Examples of muscles

The diaphramis the significant muscle for breathing(respiration). The diaphragm is situated in the rib cage belowthe lungs. That is a dome shaped muscle that pulls / pushes wait inand out of the lungs. "Hiccups" are a spasm of the diaphragm.Intercostals also help respiration Inter- (between)Costals (ribs). Inner intercostals lift the ribsduring respiration, whilst external intercostals draw theribs together during expiration come lessen the volume of the ribcage and thoracic cavity to press air the end of the lungs.Biceps and triceps room antagonist(have the opposite functions). Triceps (with three "heads")extend the forearm therefore it have the right to be hosted straight, if biceps (two"heads") flex the forearm and also draw it up.Tendons attach muscles to the bone, these are formedfrom the connective organization that covering the muscle. They space densewhite cords of tissue which are solid and flexible, lock serveto anchor muscle to the bone.
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Selected significant muscles: anterior (left) and posterior (right). Pictures c/o Wikimedia.

Muscle movements

Most activities involve number of skeletal muscle workingtogether. Most skeletal muscles room arranged in the contrary pairsat joints, for example one muscle tightens up while the otherextends.

Flexors tighten come decrease the edge of a jointExtensors be sure to increase the angle of a jointAbductors move a bone far from the midlineAdductors move a bone toward the midlineLevators make an upward movementDepressors do a bottom movementSupinators revolve the palm upwards or inwardsPronators revolve the palm downwards or outwardsSphincters decrease the size of one openingTensors makes part of the body an ext rigidRotators move a bone around

Roots, suffixes, and also prefixes

Most medical terms are comprised of a source word to add a suffix (word ending) and/or a prefix (beginning the the word). Below are some examples related to the Muscles. For much more details view Chapter 4: expertise the materials of medical Terminology

componentmeaningexample SARC-tissue sarcoma = tumour the supportive tissues (muscle, bone etc.) INTRA-into intramuscular injection = injection into a muscle MYO-muscle myocardium = love muscle BI- two biceps = muscles with two top TRI-three triceps = muscles with three heads

Cancer Focus

RhabdomyosarcomaRhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumour of striated muscle found in children and young adults. Rhabdomyosarcoma accounts for around two thirds of childhood soft tissue sarcomas. There space 3 large histological sub-types: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma wake up maily in infants and young children, usually developing in the head, neck or genitourinary system (especially the testis, prostate, vagina, and also bladder). Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is most usual in adolescents and young adults, mostly discovered in peripheral muscles. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma is most typical in adults, usually discovered in the muscle of the extremities in adults. internet Resources because that RhabdomyosarcomaOther types of Soft tissue SarcomaOther species of cancer influence muscles and also soft tissues include: fibrosarcoma (begins in fibrous organization in the arms and legs) neurofibrosarcoma (begins in nerves near the surface ar of arms, legs, and also trunk) leiomyosarcoma (muscles in the trunk) liposarcoma (begins in fat in the arms and also legs) synovial sarcoma (begins in linings of share cavities and also tendon sheaths) hemangiopericytoma (begins in blood vessels in the arms, legs, trunk, head,and neck). Alveolar soft component sarcoma (begins in nerves that the muscle in the arms and also legs) malignant fibrous histiocytoma (begins in fibrous tissue). net Resources because that Soft tissue SarcomaPotential Side results of Radiotherapy ~ above MusclesMuscles have the right to be damaged by radiotherapy which can reason fibrosis, muscle shortening and atrophy. Any potential side results will count on the site of the tumour, the patient age, and also the sheep of radiotherapy. For example high sheep radiotherapy in may an outcome in footdrop which is a condition where the anterior muscles of the leg are paralysed. 2nd malignancies an especially fibrosarcomas can additionally develop in formerly irradiated sites.

Related Abbreviations and Acronyms

ARMSAlveolar rhabdomyosarcomaIMIntramuscular - right into a muscleMPNSTMalignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath TumourNRSTSNon-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft tissue SarcomaRMSRhabdomyosarcoma

Further resources (4 links)

Muscle Names have Meaning

Kevin PattonLearning muscles is hard enough without managing those stunner convoluted Latin names. However if girlfriend pay attention to those names, you"ll discover that they space actually phrases that help you find the muscle AND help you come remember castle in the long term. Uncover out just how this works ... And where to discover lists to assist you figure out the an interpretation of usual muscle names.

Muscular device

SEER, national Cancer InstitutePart that a SEER cultivate module for cancer it is registered staff.

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Muscular mechanism - me Test questions

WebAnatomy, university of MinnesotaTest your anatomy expertise with this interactive questions. Consists of different question types and answers.

The Muscular System

Paul AndersenPaul Andersen defines the three types of muscle uncovered in humans; striated, smooth and also cardiac muscle. He explains how actin and myosin connect to contract the sarcomere in a muscle. The slide filament theory describes how ATP and also calcium are used to contract the z disks.