Ionic Bonding and Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the move of an electron from a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed in between cations and anions.A cation is formed when a steel ion loser a valence electron while an anion is formed when a non-metal gains a valence electron. They both achieve a an ext stable electronic configuration with this exchange.Ionic solids form crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, through high melting points, and also are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, making the result solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of one atom to lure electrons to itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemistry bond in i m sorry valence electrons are shed from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a more stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atom involved. One ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of opposite charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bond involve a cation and an anion. The link is formed when one atom, typically a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. Another atom, typically a non-metal, is able to get the electron(s) to end up being a negative ion, or anion.

One example of one ionic link is the formation of salt fluoride, NaF, native a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough space to expropriate it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and are attracted to one an additional due come electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: an electron is transferred from Na to F. The result Na+ and F– ions are electrically attracted to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds kind lattices, space crystalline solids under typical conditions, and also have high melting points. Many of this solids room soluble in H2O and conduct electrical energy when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electricity in equipment is why this substances are referred to as electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example the this form of compound.

Ionic bonds differ from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable electronic states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons room shared between the 2 atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, but the larger the difference in electronegativity in between the 2 atoms, the better the ionic character of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen describes how ionic solids kind when cations and anions room attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond toughness in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and also the factors that affect it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is characterized as the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot it is in measured empirically, yet it have the right to be calculated using electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that add to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and also radius that the external inspection ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warm into that is surroundings.lattice energy: The quantity of energy released upon formation of a crystalline ionic hard from gas ions.

Definition that Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an estimate of the bond strength in ionic compounds. It is identified as the heat of formation for ion of opposite charge in the gas phase to combine into one ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the power released when gaseous Na+ and also Cl– ion come together to type a lattice of alternative ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The an adverse sign that the energy is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be believed of together the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous kind of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ions (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and green respectively, alternating in the crystal lattice of hard NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be believed of as the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction shown above).

Lattice energy cannot be determined experimentally as result of the an obstacle in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value have the right to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculated theoretically with an electrostatic examination of the decision structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and Lande presented the adhering to model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which depends on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristics of the compressibility the the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and r0 is the distance to the closest ion.

This version emphasizes 2 main components that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, of the ions. The effect of those determinants is:

as the charge of the ions increases, the lattice energy increasesas the dimension of the ions increases, the lattice power decreases

Lattice energies are likewise important in predicting the solubility the ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller lattice energies often tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and anions in one ionic compound deserve to be determined by the loss or gain of valence electrons essential in bespeak to attain stable, noble gas digital configurations.The number of cations and anions the are an unified in one ionic link is the simplest proportion of entirety integers that have the right to be linked to reach electrical neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any type of of the aspects of group 18 that the periodic table, which are monatomic and, v very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net charge of zero, which occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit that electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion created of several atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is formed through the deliver of one or more valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal, i m sorry produces a cation and also an anion that are bound with each other by one attractive electrostatic force. ~ above a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as sodium chloride (NaCl), form a crystalline lattice and also are solids at regular temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride crystal lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is identified by the number of electrons required to achieve stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic ingredient is then characterized by the need that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and bromine (Br) to get an ionic compound, we first note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to achieve noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom demands to shed its 2 valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one added electron to to fill its outer shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to it is in neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio of 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will fulfill the two requirements above, the formula because that ionic compounds is frequently presented as the empirical formula, or the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms with hopeful integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, while the cation name is usually the very same as the element, the suffix that single-atom anions is readjusted to –ide, together in the instance of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix deserve to vary, however is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the instances of sodium phosphate and calcium nitrite, relying on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– combine to kind LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and also Cl– combine to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and also O2- incorporate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- incorporate to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- integrate to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- combine to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and also ClO2– combine to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer the valence electrons, frequently from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron thickness remains shared between the ingredient atoms, definition all bonds have some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a bond is determined by the loved one electronegativities of the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has actually a partial ionic character to it, together a an outcome of the difference in electronegativity in between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of one atom to entice electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compounds are commonly classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There room multiple kinds of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented together the finish loss or gain of one or much more valence electrons from a steel to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and anions the are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of an ionic bond in between lithium and also fluorine to form LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom develops a bond through fluorine, they share a pair that electrons. However, because fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attracts that shared electron pair closer to itself and thus create an electrical dipole. The small letter greek delta written over the atom is provided to show the presence of partial charges. This shortcut is thought about to have features of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atom is more facility than this version illustrates. The bond created between any kind of two atoms is not a completely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character due to the fact that the electron density remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a bond is established by the difference in electronegativity in between the ingredient atoms. The larger the difference, the an ext ionic the nature of the bond. In the standard presentation, bonds space designated together ionic once the ionic aspect is better than the covalent element of the bond. Bond that autumn in in between the 2 extremes, having actually both ionic and also covalent character, space classified as polar covalent bonds. Such bonds room thought of together consisting that partially charged confident and an unfavorable poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character represent points along a continuum, this designations space frequently valuable in understanding and comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds commonly have higher boiling and melting points, and they are likewise usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.