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Julius Caesar"s military might, political savvy, and also diplomatic genius made him supremely popular amongst the roman citizenry.

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The first conspirator greeted Caesar, climate plunged a knife into his neck. Other stabbers complied with suit. One by one, number of members the the Senate took turns stabbing Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.E.), the dictator the the whole Roman Empire.

Stunned that also his great friend Brutus was in on the plot, Caesar choked out his final words: ""kai su, teknon?" ("You too, mine child?").

On the procedures of the Senate, the most an effective man in the old world passed away in a pool of his very own blood.


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Roman soldiers" appearance changed very tiny over the centuries. The army of Julius Caesar looked very comparable to the soldiers in this 2nd-century B.C.E. Carving.

In wilhelm Shakespeare"s play Julius Caesar, the location character manages come utter "Et tu, Brute?" ("and you, Brutus?") together he is slain. This is no historically accurate.

According to the 1st century C.E. Roman chronicler Suetonius, Julius Caesar spoke largely Greek and not Latin, together was the case with most patricians in ~ the time. In his history about the life that Julius Caesar, Suetonius to write that as the assassins plunged your daggers into the dictator, Caesar saw Brutus and also spoke the Greek expression kai su, teknon, meaning "you too, mine child."

There is still dispute whether or not it to be shouted in shock or claimed as a warning. ~ above one hand, Caesar may have actually been amazing to discover a near friend favor Brutus trying to kill him; ~ above the other hand, that may have meant the Brutus would certainly pay for his crime in the future for this treachery. One of two people way, the words to be Greek, so leaving "Et tu, Brute" because that Shakespeare.
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Roman coins celebrated Caesar"s armed forces victories in Gaul (present-day France).

Long prior to Julius Caesar came to be dictator (from 47-44 B.C.E.) and was subsequently murdered, the roman inn Republic had gotten in a state of fast decline. The well-off had become wealthier and much more powerful together a result of Rome"s countless military successes.

Meanwhile, life because that the typical Roman seemed to be obtaining worse. Make the efforts to revolutionary the situation by 2 brothers, Tiberius and also Gaius Gracchus, to be met v opposition that eventually resulted in their deaths.


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Julius Caesar led his roman legions as much north as Britain in 55 B.C.E. He and also his military may have seen this watch upon landing at deal Beach.
In addition, enslavement was top top the rise, and violent servant revolts to be commonplace.
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In this 19th-century paint by Abel de Pujol, Caesar pipeline his wife on the Ides the March, the job of his murder.

A Revolting Development


Spartacus (109-71 B.C.E.) to be a captured soldier that was sold right into slavery to it is in a gladiator. Yet he escaped his captors and also formed an military of rebel slaves. Against good odds, Spartacus"s slave military defeated 2 Roman battalions.

Spartacus want to leaving Italy, yet his army and supporters of the slave revolt urged the to attack Rome. A Roman military led by Crassus finally beat Spartacus and also his men.

Over 5,000 men from Spartacus"s military were crucified along Rome"s main road, the Appian Way, as a warning to other slaves no to revolt.

Finally, a new practice arisen in i m sorry the army was paid with gold and also land. Soldiers no longer battled for the great of the Republic yet fought rather for tangible rewards. Gradually, soldiers became more loyal come the generals who might pay them 보다 to the roman Republic itself. It was within this an altering atmosphere that military leaders such as Julius Caesar were able to seize control of and also put an end to the roman Republic.

Julius Caesar was a man of numerous talents. Born right into the patrician class, Caesar to be intelligent, educated, and cultivated. Terrific speaker, he own a sharp feeling of humor, charm, and personality. Every one of these traits an unified helped make him a skilled politician.


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Moreover, Caesar to be a armed forces genius. His numerous successful military projects gained him vast support and also popularity amongst the usual people. Caesar additionally won the undying commitment of his soldiers, who offered him through the important muscle come seize power.

Julius Caesar began his increase to power in 60 B.C.E. Through forging one alliance with another general, Pompey, and a well-off patrician, Crassus. Together, this three men assumed control of the roman inn Republic, and Caesar to be thrust into the position of consul. Chroniclers have due to the fact that dubbed the duration of dominance by these three guys the very first Triumvirate.

Over time, however, the triumvirate broke down. Crassus was killed in battle, and also Pompey started entertaining ideas of judgment without the dangerously renowned Caesar. When Caesar was fighting in Gaul (modern-day France), Pompey and the Senate ordered Caesar to return to Rome there is no his army. However when Caesar overcome the Rubicon flow in north Italy, he lugged his military with that in defiance the the senate"s order. This fateful decision led to a polite war. Caesar beat Pompey"s forces and also entered Rome in 46 B.C.E., triumphant and also unchallenged.

Upon his return, Caesar made self dictator and also absolute ruler of Rome and its territories. Throughout his rule, he enacted numerous reforms. Caesar started many colonies in newly overcame territories and noted land and also opportunity for negative Romans who decided to move there. He decreased the number of slaves and opened citizenship up to human being living in the provinces. Finally, he created a brand-new calendar named the Julian calendar. This an extremely calendar, with a few minor adjustments, is the very same one used about the human being today.

In 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar bespeak the Senate to make him dictator for life. Typically, dictators served for a restricted time (usually 6 months), climate stepped down. Caesar"s actions intimidated to finish the Republic once and for all. Fearing this change, a group of senators plotted and also executed the murder of Caesar top top the Ides of March. Although the senators flourished in ending Caesar"s life, they did no realize at the time that the Republic had passed away with him.

Rome would certainly now come to be an empire.

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Timeline for general Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.E.)
100Born in Rome
84Marries Cornelia, daughter of the an effective consul Cinna
75Captured and also ransomed by Mediterranean pirates. After his release, Caesar fulfills his promise to crucify the pirates.
67Marries Pompeia after ~ Cornelia"s death
63Elected Pontifex Maximus (High Priest)
61Becomes governor of Spain
60Forms triumvirate through Crassus and also Pompey
59Elected consul
58Becomes branch of Gaul
53Crassus killed at battle of Carrhae in Mesopotamia
49Caesar and also his military cross the Rubicon into Italy, sparking civil war
48Pompey murdered in Egypt; Caesar has affair v Cleopatra and makes her queen the Egypt
47Cleopatra offers birth to Caesar"s son, Caesarion
45Wins title of dictator for life
44Assassinated ~ above the Ides of march by Brutus and also Cassius