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Árgos, city, seat of the dímos (municipality) of Argos-Mykínes in the northeastern part of the periféreia (region) of Peloponnese (Modern Greek: Pelopónnisos), Greece. That lies just north that the head that the Gulf of Argolís (Argolikós Kólpos).


The name Árgos apparently signified an farming plain and was applied to number of districts in ancient Greece. Historically, the Argolís was the easternmost section of the Peloponnesian peninsula, and the city the Árgos to be its capital. Agamemnon, Diomedes, and also other heroes native Argolís’s abundant plain number prominently in the Iliad of Homer. The existing city that Árgos lies around 4 mile (6.5 km) from the gulf listed below Kástro hill (ancient Lárissa), a site probably occupied due to the fact that the at an early stage Bronze age and an extremely prominent in Mycenaean times (c. 1300–1200 bce). A tiny market town on the Corinth-Návplion rail line, the is developed over lot of the site of the classic city.

Árgos was more than likely the basic of Dorian to work in the Peloponnese (c. 1100–1000 bce), and from that time onward it was the dominant city-state that Argolís. Under the Argive king Pheidon (7th century bce), Árgos was the dominant city-state in every the Peloponnese until the rise of Spartan power. The Argives defeated the Spartans at Hysiae (669). In 550 and also again in 494, however, Sparta beat Árgos, which take it no component in the Greco-Persian Wars. As Spartan power ongoing to grow, Árgos allied through Athens in 461 and again during the Peloponnesian war in 420, but, ~ the defeat of the Athenian organization in 418 and also an oligarchic revolution in Árgos, the city allied itself with Sparta. Tranquility with Sparta was damaged when Árgos united federally with Corinth (392) as the Corinthian war started. Argive commitment to Corinth quickly wavered, and, as soon as Thebes revolted versus Sparta (379), democracy took power in Árgos and also participated in Theban victories over Sparta at Leuctra (371) and also Mantineia (362).

Waning Theban power carried renewed Spartan aggression that compelled the Argives to appeal come Philip II the Macedonia, who restored to them your old district of Cynuria ~ above the western side of the Gulf of Argolís. ~ several an ext incursions, principally Macedonian, right into its territory, Árgos joined the Achaean league in 229, remaining energetic except during quick Spartan occupations of the city (225 and 196).

The roman inn conquest and the devastation of Corinth (146) enhanced the importance of Árgos, which became the centre of the Achaean League. The city flourished in oriental times, but when the Frankish principality of Achaea was created (1204 ce) after ~ the 4th Crusade with Nauplia together its capital, Árgos subsequently declined. In 1397 the Turks captured Árgos, and again in 1500, massacring the inhabitants and replacing them with Albanians. Throughout the battle of Greek self-reliance (1821–29), the very first free Greek Parliament was convened at Árgos (1821 and 1829).

Archaeological excavations began on the site—just northeast that the present city, ~ above a rocky spur of mount Euboea (Évvoia) close to the ruins of Mycenae (Mykínes)—in 1854, and the American college of timeless Studies in ~ Athens (Athína) started excavations top top the Argive Heraeum (Heraion) in 1892 and also 1895. The Heraeum had been the centre of the praise of the mother-goddess Hera and also the organic sanctuary the the Argolís long prior to the Dorians come (c. 1100–1000 bce).

After the Dorian intrusion a large temple was erected on the Heraeum, probably in the late 7th century bce, yet nothing survives the this other than the limestone platform and also a component of the column-supporting pavement, or stylobate. The Greek geographer Pausanias documents the burn of the holy place (423 bce) through its priestess’s negligence. A an ext splendid temple was started by the neighborhood architect Eupolemus, designed in limestone with Doric columns. This holy place was flanked by superior stoas, or colonnaded halls.

The French school at Athens performed various excavations in ~ Árgos before and after world War II, uncovering the stays of a holy place of Apollo. ~ above the reduced ground your researches uncovered one more temple site, and also the site of what remained in all probability the Bouleuterion (council house) that the Greek city, city baths and also a Heroon (hero-cult shrine) of roman date, and also a cemetery v graves extending from the center Helladic period (c. 2000–c. 1600 bce) to late roman inn times.

In the early classical period, influential Argive sculptors had Ageladas and his student Polyclitus, that executed a colossal gold and also ivory cult statue that Hera in the temple at the Heraeum, since lost—though some idea of the head may be gained from details Argive coins the this period. Today, Árgos is a prosperous agricultural and advertising centre because that vegetables and also fruits grown in the plain and also for food-processing industries based on them. Pop. (2001) 24,630; (2011) 22,209.

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This short article was many recently revised and also updated through Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.