The aspects within the same group of the routine table often tend to exhibit similar physical and gimpppa.orgical properties. Four significant factors affect reactivity the metals: atom charge, atom radius, shielding effect and also sublevel plan (of electrons). Steel reactivity relates to capability to lose electrons (oxidize), type basic hydroxides, kind ionic compounds with non-metals. In general, the enlarge the atom, the higher the ability to lose electrons. The higher the shielding, the higher the ability to lose electrons. Therefore, metallic character boosts going under the table, and decreases going throughout -- therefore the most energetic metal is in the direction of the left and also down.

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Group 1: The Alkali Metals

The native "alkali" is acquired from one Arabic word definition "ashes". Numerous sodium and also potassium compounds were isolated from timber ashes ((ceNa2CO3) and (ceK2CO3) room still periodically referred to as "soda ash" and "potash"). In the alkali group, as we go down the group we have elements Lithium (Li), salt (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). Number of physical properties of these elements are compared in Table (PageIndex1). These facets have all only one electron in their outermost shells. Every the facets show metallic properties and have valence +1, hence they provide up electron easily.

Table (PageIndex1): general Properties of team I metals ElementElectronic ConfigurationMelting point (°C)Density (g/cm3)Atomic RadiusIonization power (kJ/mol)
Lithium (2s^1) 181 0.53 1.52 520
Sodium (3s^1) 98 0.97 1.86 496
Potassium (4s^1) 63 0.86 2.27 419
Rubidium (5s^1) 39 1.53 2.47 403
Cesium (6s^1) 28 1.88 2.65 376

As we move down the group (from Li to Fr), the adhering to trends room observed (Table (PageIndex1)):

All have a solitary electron in an "s" valence orbit The melting allude decreases The thickness increases The atom radius boosts The ionization power decreases (first ionization energy)

The alkali metals have actually the shortest (I_1) worths of the elements

This to represent the loved one ease v which the lone electron in the outer "s" orbital have the right to be removed.

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The alkali steels are an extremely reactive, readily losing 1 electron to form an ion v a 1+ charge:

Due to this reactivity, the alkali metals are discovered in nature just as compounds. The alkali metals integrate directly with most nonmetals:

React with hydrogen to kind solid hydrides

<2M_(s) + H_2(g) ightarrow 2MH(s)>

(Note: hydrogen is current in the steel hydride together the hydride H- ion)

React with sulfur to form solid sulfides

<2M_(s) + S_(s) ightarrow M_2S_(s)>

React with chlorine to kind solid chlorides

<2M_(s) + Cl_2(g) ightarrow 2MCl_(s)>

Alkali steels react with water to develop hydrogen gas and alkali steel hydroxides; this is a an extremely exothermic reaction (Figure (PageIndex1)).

<2M_(s) + 2H_2O_(l) ightarrow 2MOH_(aq) + H_2(g)>

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Figure (PageIndex1): A tiny piece that potassium steel explodes together it reacts through water. (CC SA-BY 3.0; Tavoromann)

The reaction between alkali metals and oxygen is more complex: