The national Assessment Governing plank sets policy for the national Assessment of Educational development (NAEP). Learn more about our work.


The nationwide Assessment that Educational progression — recognized as The country Report card — is the largest continuing, nationally representative review of education in the joined States.


NAEP frameworks carry out the blueprint for the content and also design of each assessment. Learn just how NAEP assessments space built.


The nation’s Report Card notifies the public around what U.S. Students know and also can carry out in a range of topic areas.


vital role that the board is setup achievement levels because that NAEP assessments. Discover more about this procedure and what the achievement levels median when it comes to measuring student achievement.


The administrate Board functions to continually boost NAEP’s influence as a resource for improving education. See some of our priority topics and also initiatives.


The national Assessment Governing board sets policy for the national Assessment of Educational development (NAEP). Learn an ext about our work.


The national Assessment the Educational development — known as The nation’s Report card — is the biggest continuing, nationally representative evaluation of education in the joined States.


NAEP frameworks administer the blueprint because that the content and design of every assessment. Learn just how NAEP assessments are built.


The country Report Card informs the public about what U.S. Students know and can execute in a range of topic areas.


vital role of the plank is setup achievement levels for NAEP assessments. Discover much more about this procedure and what the achievement levels mean when it concerns measuring college student achievement.


The governing Board functions to continually boost NAEP’s affect as a source for boosting education. See few of our priority topics and also initiatives.


B. Design Design

Engineering style (sometimes called technological design) is an iterative, systematic procedure for solving problems that involves creativity, experience, and gathered disciplinary knowledge. As offered in this framework, engineering architecture is a broad term, consisting of processes such as architectural design, manufacturing design, commercial design, and software design.

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Much like scientific inquiry, engineering style is a dynamic process, not a strictly method. As engineering and also science are often confused, it is beneficial to draw a distinction. Clinical inquiry begins with a question and proceeds come generate and also test hypotheses till the concern is answered. In contrast, engineering style begins v a problem and proceeds to generate and also test services until a desired solution or options are reached. Whereas science seeks to understand, design seeks to fulfill people"s needs.

The design design procedure usually starts by stating a need or want as a plainly defined challenge in the form of a statement through criteria and constraints. For example, a team of engineers can be given the job of designing, for example, a cabinet phone through a particular collection of features, of a particular size and also weight, through a certain minimum battery life, and that is able come be manufactured at a certain cost. Criteria are characteristics of a effective solution, such as the desired role or a details level of efficiency. Constraints are restrictions on the design, such as obtainable funds, resources, or time. Together, the criteria and also constraints are referred to as the requirements for a successful solution.

Once the an obstacle is defined, the next steps are often to investigate pertinent scientific and also technical information and also the method that comparable challenges have been solved in the past and then to generate various feasible solutions. This generation of potential solutions is the most an imaginative part that the design process and is frequently aided by sketching and also discussion. Utilizing a procedure of educated decision-making, the designer or style team compares various solutions to the requirements of the problem and also either chooses the most promising solution or synthesizes several principles into one even much more promising potential solution. The following step is commonly to shot out the systems by building a model, prototype (first that its kind), or simulation and also then trial and error it to see how well it meets the criteria and also falls in ~ the constraints. Secondary characteristic that engineering style is that concepts are tested before investing too much time, money, or effort.

A human does not have to be an engineer to rental an engineering style process. Kids can use this process to produce a brand-new toy, teachers have the right to use that to setup a semester that lessons, and anyone can use the to address a need or desire encountered in everyday life.

The result of an design design process is not always a product. In some situations the an outcome may be a procedure (such as a chemical procedure for creating an improved paint) or a mechanism (such as an airline control system or a railway schedule), or a computer program (such as a video clip game or software program to projection the weather or design financial markets).

When designing, that is necessary to take right into account the whole life bicycle of the product or process, consisting of maintenance, troubleshooting, potential fail modes, effects on the environment, and also effects ~ above society. Creating usually concludes with a presentation to clients or various other interested next (often classmates) on the wanted solution.

Optimization, i beg your pardon is sometimes part of designing, means finding the best feasible solution when some default or constraint is identified as the many important and others are given less weight. For example, optimizing the design of a pen could mean making for lowest cost, finest ink flow, or ideal grip, yet not every three. Optimizing the design of an aircraft engine usually way maximizing safety. In part engineering self-controls the whole engineering procedure is referred to as "optimization under constraint."

It bears emphasizing that engineering style is not a strict method. Various instructional materials define it differently, back most interpretations specify a succession of steps, ranging from 5 procedures for elementary students to 8 or 10 steps for high institution students. The procedures need no be followed in order. An experienced engineer might skip ahead a action or two or go earlier one or 2 steps. Or ~ generating remedies it may become clear the the difficulty was poorly defined, and so the is best to restart the procedure from the beginning. Regardless of these distinctions in an interpretation and use, engineering design always begins with a problem and ends with one or an ext solutions.

Key values in the area of engineering Design that all students can be supposed to understand at raising levels the sophistication are:

Engineering architecture is a systematic, creative, and iterative process for addressing challenges.Designing includes identifying and stating the problem, need, or desire; generating ideas; examining ideas; picking a solution; making and also testing models or prototypes; redesigning; and communicating results.Requirements because that a design difficulty include the criteria because that success, or goals to it is in achieved, and also the border or boundaries that can not be violated in a solution. Species of criteria and also constraints include materials, cost, safety, reliability, performance, maintenance, lull of use, aesthetic considerations, and policies.There are several possible ways that addressing a design challenge.Evaluation way determining how well a solution meets requirements.Optimization requires finding the best possible solution once some default or constraint is figured out as the most important and also other constraints are minimized.Engineering architecture usually needs one to develop and also manipulate representations and models (for example, prototypes, drawings, charts, and also graphs).

Fourth-graders should know that engineering style is a purposeful technique of addressing problems and also achieving results. Lock should have the ability to state a an easy design an obstacle in their own words, test a solution, and communicate the findings v drawings and models.

Eighth-graders should have the ability to carry the end a full engineering design process to fix a difficulty of middle difficulty. Castle should have the ability to define the challenge in terms of criteria and constraints, study the problem, generate different solutions, build and also test a version or prototype, redesign, and communicate the findings.

Twelfth-graders should be able to meet a complicated challenge, weigh alternate solutions, and use the principle of trade-offs to balance completing values. They should be able to redesign so as to arrive at an optimal solution.

B. Engineering style Goals

Fourth-graders have to start to answer the question "How are technologies created?" by confronting basic yet systematic architecture challenges. Eighth-graders should have the ability to use a more elaborate engineering design process, including problem definition, the use of prototypes, testing and also iteration, and also trade-offs. Twelfth-graders should have a deep understanding and also a large array of architecture skills, consisting of optimization.

Table 2.7 Engineering architecture assessment targets for grades 4, 8, and 12

Grade 4Grade 8Grade 12

Students understand that:

D.4.6: Engineering design is a organized and an imaginative process for conference challenges. Regularly there are numerous solutions come a design challenge. Each one could be far better in some means than the others. For example, one solution could be safer, while another might expense less.

Students recognize that:

D.8.6: Engineering design is a systematic, creative, and also iterative procedure for meeting person needs and also wants. It contains stating the challenge, generating ideas, choosing the ideal solution, making and also testing models and also prototypes, and redesigning. Frequently there are several possible solutions.

Students understand that:

D.12.6: Engineering design is a complex process in which an innovative steps are installed in contents knowledge and research on the challenge. Decisions on trade-offs involve organized comparisons of every costs and also benefits, and final steps might involve redesigning because that optimization.

D.4.7: Requirements for a architecture include the wanted features that a product or system and also the boundaries placed on the design, such together which materials are available.

D.8.7: Requirements for a design are consisted of of the criteria because that success and also the constraints, or limits, i m sorry may encompass time, money, and also materials. Developing often involves making trade-offs between competing requirements and desired style features.

D.12.7: Specifications show off criteria, which may be weight in various ways, and also constraints, which can incorporate natural laws and accessible technologies. Evaluation is a procedure for determining how well a equipment meets the requirements.

Students room able to:

D.4.8: Use a systematic procedure to architecture a systems to a simple problem.

Students are able to:

D.8.8: Carry out a design procedure to solve a moderately daunting problem by identify criteria and constraints, determining exactly how they will affect the solution, researching and generating ideas, and also using trade-offs to select between alternative solutions.

Students are able to:

D.12.8: Meet a sophisticated design difficulty by identifying criteria and constraints, predicting how these will influence the solution, researching and also generating ideas, and also using trade-offs to balance completing values in choosing the finest solution.

D.4.9: Construct and also test a basic model to identify if that meets the needs of a problem.

D.8.9: Construct and also test a model and also gather data to see if it meets the needs of a problem.

D.12.9: Construct and test numerous models to watch if they satisfy the demands of a problem. Integrate features to attain the best solution.

D.4.10: Communicate architecture ideas utilizing drawings and also models.

D.8.10: Communicate the results of a design procedure and articulate the thinking behind style decisions by utilizing verbal and visual means. Identify the services of a design and the feasible unintended consequences.

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D.12.10: Communicate the whole design procedure from problem an interpretation to review of the last design, taking right into account pertinent criteria and also constraints, consisting of aesthetic and also ethical considerations and also purely reasonable decisions.