Variables are vital part of one eye tracking experiment. A change is anything the can readjust or be changed. In various other words, it is any type of factor that can be manipulated, managed for, or measure up in an experiment.Experiments save different varieties of variables. We will existing you with some of the main types of experimental variables, their definitions and give you examples containing all variable types.

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Types of experimental variables:

Independent variables (IV): These space the determinants or problems that you manipulate in an experiment. Your theory is that this variable reasons a straight effect top top the dependency variable.Dependent variables (DV): These room the element that you watch or measure. Together you differ your independent change you clock what happens to your dependent variable.

Extraneous variable: one extraneous varable is any kind of extra element that may affect the outcome of an experiment, also though that is no the focus of the experiment. Ideally, this variables won’t influence the conclusions attracted from the results as a mindful experimental architecture should equally spread influence across your check conditions and also stimuli.Nevertheless, extraneous variables should always be considered and controlled when possible as they may introduce unwanted variation in your data. In this case, you should tweak your design and procedure to have the ability to keep the variation constant or find a strategy to monitor its affect (constant or controlled variables).All experiments have extraneous variables. Right here are some instances of different species of extraneous variables:aspects that the atmosphere where the data arsenal will take place, e.g., room temperature, lift noise level, irradiate levels;differences in participant qualities (participant variables); andtest operator, or experimenter actions during the test, i.e., your instructions to the check participants are not continuous or they offer unintentional clues of the goal of the experiment to the participants.

Figure 2. Display screens the impact of extraneous variables top top the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

controlled (or constant) variables: room extraneous variables the you regulate to keep continuous or regulated for during the food of the experiment, together they may have actually an result on your dependent variables as well.Participant variables: Participant variables can be characterized as the different individual characteristics that may influence how a participant responds in an experiment. Instances of participant variables incorporate gender, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, proficiency status, mood, clinical diagnosis etc.Stimulus variables: these are particular features of your stimulus or group of stimuli that are part of the paper definition in i m sorry the habits occurs. These are often an expression the or a subset of your independent variables and covariates. Examples encompass the variety of items, article category, stimulus crowdedness, color, brightness, contrast, etc.

Operationalizing variables

Before you start your experiment, you need to have actually a clear definition of, and strategy for, how each variable will be measured and recorded. This procedure is called variable operationalization.

For example, you room interested in studying mindsets towards food, visual attention, and food choice. In your very first study, her objective is to inspection “the impact of an individual health purposes on visual fist to different food groups”.

The very first part of her objective, “the result of an individual health goals…”, consists of an elevation variable. To operationalize it you have to ask you yourself the adhering to questions: What is a personal health goal? can you quantify and also measure it? deserve to you break it down into distinct categories? just how will you collect and also record that is value? because of the nature the this term, her variable will most most likely be composed of 2 or much more categories (e.g. Shed weight, keep weight, get weight etc.) and also its value taped by means of a questionnaire or interview. An alert that in this example, the independent variable is also an intrinsic attribute of a participant and thus specific to that individual, together a result, this variable can likewise be classified as a participant variable.

The next component of your research objective “…on visual fist to different food groups”, contains your dependency variable. Once again, you will have to ask yourself the complying with questions: What is visual attention? how do ns measure it? exactly how is food grouped? exactly how will we stand for the various groups in the stimuli? Which group strategy is appropriate to my objective? The term “visual attention to” can be operationalized right into one or much more relevant visual behavior measures that can be quantified and measured continuously. For example, eye tracking metrics favor fixation duration, continuous count, and dwell time can provide you through information about the visual engagement and also bias towards various items in your stimulus. The “… various food groups” term will certainly most likely be operationalized together food species aggregated into categories (e.g. Vegetables, red meat, dairy) and displayed on photo stimulus. Due to the fact that you are manipulating the contents of the stimulus and the manipulation affects the context in i beg your pardon the habits occurs and the viewing behavior itself, your stimulus categories will be part of your set of live independence variables and also simultaneously a stimulus variable.


Figure 3. Reflects one possible outcome that the operationalization that the different variables in the instance study. The objective of this study is to find out what effect personal health goals have on a person"s visual attention to various food groups.

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In the instance above, the participant’s "current hunger state" is a variable that may influence visual behavior and also attention bias. If a check participant ate their enjoy the meal a long time ago and feeling hungry, their fist may end up being focused ~ above high calorie food groups, also though they can normally no look to those food items once they"re satisfied. If you decision to overlook it, it becomes an extraneous variable in her experiment and also may influence the relationship in between your independent and dependent variable. On the various other hand, if you decide to resolve it and control for it, friend will likewise have to operationalize it, e.g. You can measure it as the elapsed time due to the fact that the last meal. If you climate ask every your research participants to eat a meal within 1 hour before your test, this variable i do not care a regulated variable, together you try to standardize the level of hunger across your independent variable groups.