The legislative branch Assembly

The legislature Assembly, the legislative branch of revolutionary France from October 1, 1791 to September 20, 1792, noted the focus of politics debate and also revolutionary law-making. However, its tenure overlapped with a duration of too much political and social chaos.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe legislative branch Assembly an initial met on October 1, 1791, under the structure of 1791, consist of of 745 members. Few were nobles, very couple of were clergymen, and the bulk came from the center class. The members were normally young, and since none had actually sat in the previous Assembly they largely lacked national political experience.From the beginning, relations between the king and also the legislative Assembly were hostile. Louis consistently vetoed decrees propose by the Assembly and the war against Austria (soon joined by Prussia) intensified tensions. Soon, the King dismissed Girondins native the Ministry.When the king formed a new cabinet mostly of Feuillants, the breach v the king and the Assembly top top one side and also the majority of thecommon people of Paris on the other. Events concerned a head in June as soon as Lafayette sent a letter come the Assembly recommending the suppression the the “anarchists” and political clubs in the capital. The demonstration of June 20 followed.The Girondins made a last development to Louis, offering to save the monarchy if he would certainly accept them as ministers. His refusal joined all the Jacobins in the task of overturning the monarchy by force. The neighborhood leaders the this new stage the the change were facilitated their work by the are afraid of intrusion by the allied army.On the night of august 10, 1792, insurgents and popular militias, supported by the revolutionary Paris Commune, assailed the Tuileries Palace and also massacred the Swiss safety assigned for the security of the king. The royal family ended up being prisoners and a rump session of the legislature Assembly rely the monarchy.Chaos persisted until the national Convention, chosen by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met ~ above September 20, 1792, and also became the new de facto government the France. Through the same token, the legislature Assembly ceased to exist.Key TermsLegislative Assembly: The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, come September 20, 1792, throughout the year of the French Revolution. It listed the focus of politics debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the national Constituent Assembly and the nationwide Convention.Paris Commune: throughout the French Revolution, the federal government of Paris native 1789 till 1795. Developed in the Hôtel de Ville just ~ the storming that the Bastille, it had 144 delegates elected by the 48 departments of the city. It came to be insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders native the main French government. The took fee of routine civic functions but is best known for mobilizing extreme views. It shed much strength in 1794 and was replaced in 1795.Demonstration that June 20: The last serene attempt (1792) made by the world of Paris throughout the French transformation to sway King luigi XVI that France to abandon his present policy and also attempt to follow what they believed to be a an ext empathetic strategy to governing. Its objectives were to convince the government to force the legislature Assembly’s rulings, protect France against foreign invasion, and preserve the soul of the French structure of 1791. The demonstrators hoped that the king would certainly withdraw his veto and recall the Girondin ministers. It to be the critical phase that the unsuccessful attempt to establish a constitution monarchy in France.Brunswick Manifesto: A proclamation approve by Charles wilhelm Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, command of the Allied army (principally Austrian and also Prussian), on July 25, 1792, to the populace of Paris throughout the battle of the very first Coalition. It threatened that if the French imperial family were harmed, French civilians would be harmed. This measure was intended come intimidate Paris,but rather helped further spur the significantly radical French Revolution.September Massacres: A tide of killings in Paris (September 2-7, 1792) and other urban in late summer 1792, throughout the French Revolution. Lock were partially triggered by a fear that foreign and also royalist armies would assault Paris and also that the inmates that the city’s prisons would certainly be freed and also join them. Radicals referred to as for preemptive action, which to be undertaken by mobs of national Guardsmen and part fédérés. It to be tolerated through the city government, the Paris Commune, which called on other cities to monitor suit.

Political power at the legislative branch Assembly

The legislative Assembly an initial met on October 1, 1791 under the constitution of 1791, and also consisted of 745 members. Couple of were nobles, very few were clergymen, and the majority came native the center class. The members were normally young, and since none had sat in the ahead Assembly, mostly lacked national political experience.

The rightists in ~ the assembly consists of around 260 Feuillants (constitutional monarchists), who chief leaders, Gilbert du Motier de La Fayette and also Antoine Barnave, remained exterior the Assembly since of your ineligibility because that re-election. They were staunch constitution monarchists, certain in your defense the the King against the well-known agitation. The leftists were 136 Jacobins (still consisting of the party later known as the Girondins or Girondists) and Cordeliers (a populist group, whose countless members would certainly later come to be the radical Montagnards ). That most famed leaders were Jacques Pierre Brissot, the theorist Condorcet, and also Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud. The Left attracted its incentive from the more radical propensity of the Enlightenment, related to the émigré nobles together traitors, and espoused anticlericalism. Lock were suspiciously of luigi XVI, some favoring a general European war both to spread the new ideals of liberty and also equality and to put the king’s loyalty to the test. The remainder of the House, 345 deputies, belonged come no definite party and also were dubbed the swamp (Le Marais) or the plain (La Plaine). They were committed come the ideals the the change and thus generally inclined to side through the left however would likewise occasionally back proposals from the right.

Some historians problem these numbers and estimate the the legislative branch Assembly consisted of about 165 Feuillants (the right), about 330 Jacobins (including Girondins; the left), and about 350 deputies, who did not belong to any definite party but voted most often with the left. The distinctions emerge from exactly how historians method data in main sources, where numbers report by the clubs do not overlap through analyses of society membership conducted independently by name.


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Medal of the very first French Legislative Assembly (1791-1792), Augustin Challamel, Histoire-musée de la république Française, depuis l’assemblée des notables, Paris, Delloye, 1842.


The legislature Assembly was moved by two opposing groups. The very first were conservative members of the bourgeoisie (wealthy middle class in the third Estate) the favored a constitutional monarchy, stood for by the Feuillants, that felt that the revolution had already completed its goal. The other team was the autonomous faction because that whom the king might no much longer be trusted, represented by the new members the the Jacobin club that claimed that much more revolutionary measures were necessary.

Louis XVI’s partnership with the Assembly

From the beginning, relations between the king and the legislature Assembly to be hostile. Luigi vetoed 2 decrees propose in November: the the émigrés assembled top top the frontiers have to be responsible to the penalty of death and confiscation if they stayed so assembled and that every non-juring clergyman need to take the civic oath on pains of losing his pension and potential deportation.

The war declared on April 20, 1792, against Austria (soon joined by Prussia) began as a catastrophe for the French. Tensions in between Louis XVI and the legislative Assembly intensified and the reprimand for battle failures was thrown very first upon the king and his ministers and the Girondins party. The legislature Assembly passed decrees sentencing any type of priest denounced by 20 citizens to prompt deportation, dissolve the King’s safety on the grounds that it was manned by aristocrats, and also establishing a camp the 20,000 national guardsmen (Fédérés) near Paris. The King vetoed the decrees and dismissed Girondins from the Ministry. Once the king formed a brand-new cabinet mainly of Feuillants, the breach between the king on the one hand and the Assembly and the majority of the common human being of Paris ~ above the various other widened. Events involved a head in June as soon as Lafayette sent a letter come the Assembly recommending the suppression that the “anarchists” and also political clubs in the capital. The demonstrate of June 20, 1792, followed as the last tranquil attempt made by the civilization of Paris to guide King louis XVI of France to give up his existing policy and attempt to follow what they thought to it is in a more empathetic technique to governing.


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The human being Storming the Tuileries ~ above 20 June, 1792, Jacques-Antoine Dulaure, Esquisses historiques des principaux événemens de la révolution, v. 2, Paris, Baudouin frères, 1823.: The King’s veto the the legislature Assembly’s decrees was released on June 19, just one day before the 3rd anniversary that the Tennis Court Oath that inaugurated the Revolution. The renowned demonstration of June 20, 1792, was organized to put press on the King.


Events of respectable 10

The Girondins do a last advance to Louis providing to conserve the monarchy if he would accept them as ministers. His refusal joined all the Jacobins in the task of overturning the monarchy by force. The neighborhood leaders the this new stage the the revolution were facilitated their job-related by the fear of intrusion by the allied army. The Assembly claimed the country in danger and also the Brunswick Manifesto, combined with the news the Austrian and Prussian militaries had marched right into French soil, heated the republican soul to fury.

On the night of respectable 10, 1792, insurgents and also popular militias sustained by the revolutionary Paris Commune assailed the Tuileries Palace and massacred the Swiss guards assigned because that the protection of the king. The royal family ended up being prisoners and also a rump conference of the legislative branch Assembly rely the monarchy. Little much more than a third of the deputies were present, almost all of them Jacobins. What stayed of a nationwide government depended on the assistance of the insurrectionary Commune. With enemy troops advancing, the Commune tried to find potential traitors in Paris and sent a one letter to the various other cities the France inviting them to follow this example. In Paris and also many other cities, the massacres the prisoners and also priests (known as September Massacres) followed. The Assembly could offer just feeble resistance. In October, however, there was a counterattack accusing the instigators of gift terrorists. This led to a politics contest in between the an ext moderate Girondists and also the much more radical Montagnards inside the Convention, v rumor used as a weapon by both sides. The Girondists shed ground when they seemed too conciliatory, however the pendulum swung again ~ the males who endorsed the massacres to be denounced as terrorists.

Chaos persisted until the nationwide Convention, chosen by universal male suffrage and charged through writing a new constitution, met ~ above September 20, 1792, and also became the new de facto government of France. The legislature Assembly end to exist. The following day, the Convention denomination the monarchy and also declared a republic.


The first French Republic and Regicide

The execution of Louis XVI top top January 21, 1793, radicalized the French transformation at home and also united european monarchies against revolutionary France.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe Insurrection of august 10, 1792, brought about the development of the national Convention, chosen by global male suffrage and charged through writing a brand-new constitution. On September 20, the Convention became the new de facto government that France, and also the following day it denomination the monarchy and also declared a republic.A the supervisory board was created to research evidence against the King while the Convention’s regulation Committee taken into consideration legal facets of any future trial. Many Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, when the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided worrying Louis’s fate.The trial began on December 3. The adhering to day, the Convention’s chairman Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac gift it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation that Louis XVI. Louis XVI heard 33 charges.Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’ collusion through the invaders throughout the ongoing war v Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. Ultimately, 693 deputies poll “yes” in favor of a guilty verdict. No a solitary deputy vote “no,” although 26 enclosed some problem to their votes. For punishment, 361 poll for fatality without conditions, just carrying the poll by a marginal majority.On January 21, 1793, the former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen luigi Capet (Citizen luigi Capet), to be executed by guillotine. Marie Antoinette to be tried separately, ~ Louis’s death. She was guillotined top top October 16, 1793.In France, the reign of Terror followed. Throughout Europe, conservative were horrified and also monarchies dubbed for war against revolutionary France. The execution of Louis XVI joined all european governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution.Key TermsLegislative Assembly: The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, to September 20, 1792, throughout the years of the French Revolution. It provided the focus of political debate and also revolutionary law-making between the periods of the nationwide Constituent Assembly and the national Convention.Insurrection of august 10, 1792: among the specifying events in the background of the French Revolution, the storming the the Tuileries Palace by the national Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés from Marseilles and Brittany resulted in the fall of the French monarchy. King louis XVI and the royal family members took shelter with the legislative Assembly, which to be suspended. The formal finish of the monarchy six weeks later on was one of the very first acts that the brand-new National Convention.Paris Commune: during the French Revolution, the federal government of Paris indigenous 1789 till 1795. Created in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming that the Bastille, it had 144 delegates chosen by the 48 departments of the city. It came to be insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, refusing to take it orders from the central French government. It took charge of routine civic functions yet is best known for mobilizing extreme views. It lost much power in 1794 and was replaced in 1795.

The results of august 10

The Insurrection of respectable 10, 1792, was among the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the nationwide Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés (federates) indigenous Marseilles and also Brittany resulted in the autumn of the French monarchy. King louis XVI and the royal family took sanctuary with the legislative Assembly, which was suspended. Chaos persisted until the national Convention, elected by global male suffrage and charged through writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and also became the new de facto government the France. The following day the Convention denomination the monarchy and also declared a republic.

The Convention’s unanimous explanation of a French Republic on September 21, 1792, left open the fate of the King. A commission was developed to examine evidence versus him when the Convention’s legislation Committee thought about legal facets of any kind of future trial. Many Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) to be divided concerning Louis’s fate, through some suggesting for royal inviolability, others because that clemency, and also still others because that either lesser punishment or death. On November 20, opinion rotate sharply versus Louis complying with the exploration of a mystery cache the 726 papers of his personal communications. Most of the pieces of post in the cabinet connected ministers that Louis XVI, yet others affiliated most of the big players the the Revolution. These documents, in spite of the likely gaps and pre-selection showed the duplicity of advisers and ministers—at the very least those the Louis XVI trusted—who had set up parallel policies.

The Trial

The trial started on December 3. The adhering to day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac gift it v the indictment and decreed the interrogation that Louis XVI. The Convention’s secretary check out the charges: “the French people” accused Louis of committing “a multitude of crimes in bespeak to establish tyranny by ruining its liberty.” louis XVI heard 33 charges.

Louis XVI search the many illustrious legal minds in France as his defense team. The job of command counsel at some point fell to Raymond Desèze, aided by François Denis Tronchet and also Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes. Return he had actually only two weeks to prepare his defense arguments, top top December 26 Desèze pleaded the king’s instance for 3 hours, arguing eloquently however discreetly that the change spare his life.

Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’s collusion with the invaders throughout the recurring war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict to be a foregone conclusion. Ultimately, 693 deputies vote “yes” because that a guilty verdict. Not a single deputy vote “no,” although 26 enclosed some condition to their votes. 26 deputies were absent from the vote, many on main business. 23 deputies abstained for various reasons, several since they feeling they had been chosen to make laws rather 보다 to judge.

For the king’s sentence, deputy Jean-Baptiste Mailhe propose “Death, but (…) i think it would certainly be worthy of the Convention to take into consideration whether it would certainly be helpful to plan to hold-up the execution.” This “Mailhe amendment,” sustained by 26 deputies, was pertained to by several of Mailhe’s contemporaries together a conspiracy to save the king’s life. It was even said that Mailhe had been paid, possibly by Spanish gold. Paris vote overwhelmingly because that death, 21 come 3. Robespierre voted very first and stated “The sentiment that led me to call for the abolition the the fatality penalty is the very same that today forces me to need that the be used to the tyrant of my country.” Philippe Égalité, previously the battle each other of Orléans and also Louis’ very own cousin, voted for his execution, a reason of much future bitterness amongst French monarchists.

There were 721 voter in total. 34 voted for death with attached problems (23 of whom invoked the Mailhe amendment), 2 voted because that life imprisonment in irons, 319 voted because that imprisonment until the finish of the war (to be followed by banishment). And 361 vote for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. Louis to be to be placed to death.

Execution

On January 21, 1793, louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. And heard his last Mass. Upon father Edgeworth’s advice, the avoided a farewell scene through his family. His royal seal to be to go to the Dauphin and also his wedding ring come the Queen. In ~ 10 a.m., a carriage through the king came down on Place de la Révolution and also proceeded to a room surrounded through guns and also drums and a crowd transporting pikes and bayonets, which had actually been kept complimentary at the foot that the scaffold. The former Louis XVI, now merely named Citoyen luigi Capet (Citizen luigi Capet), was executed by guillotine.

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Marie Antoinette was tried separately, after ~ Louis’s death. She to be guillotined top top October 16, 1793.