AAAS project 2061 Textbook Evaluations
Middle grades Science Textbooks: A Benchmarks-Based Evaluation
You are watching: Nonliving and living matter are composed of
there is a contents match. The idea that all matter is made up of particles is declared explicitly a few times in the college student Edition. Many of the instances are short mentions do in the human body of the text. The idea the “all develops of issue are comprised of tiny particles that room in constant motion” is presented as the particle version of issue in chapter 6 (p. 135s). Thereafter, the idea of particles is offered to explain a few properties of building material (such together hardness and phases the matter). In thing 7, before being presented to the structure of the atom, students are reminded that all issue in the universe is comprised of small particles: “A glass of water, because that example, has countless water particles, every too small to see” (p. 157s). The text proceeds by specifying atoms as the structure blocks that matter: Water particles have the right to actually be separated into also smaller units. The pieces of matter that an outcome from separating a water bit are no longer water. Castle are examples of the most simple units of matter referred to as atoms. Atoms can’t be damaged down right into smaller piece by any common methods of separating matter. Atoms room the structure blocks that the universe….
On the complying with page, the idea is proclaimed as one of four concepts in Dalton’s theory: “All matter is written of tiny, indivisible particles dubbed atoms” (p. 158s). In thing 9, before learning about heat energy and temperature at the molecular level, students room reminded the “all issue is consisted of of molecules that are in constant motion” (p. 209s).
In chapter 6 and at the start of thing 7, the term “particles” is provided to refer to a substance’s molecules. Because that example, the student Edition states:A glass of water, because that example, has plenty of water particles, every too tiny to see…. Water particles deserve to actually be split into even smaller units. The pieces of issue that result from separating a water bit are no much longer water. Castle are instances of the most an easy units that matter called atoms.
However, on the adhering to page, the hatchet “particles” is provided to describe atoms: “All issue is written of tiny, indivisible particles dubbed atoms” (p. 158s). After ~ a molecule is defined as a solitary particle the a problem (such as water) consisted of of 2 or much more atoms (chapter 7, p. 170s), the hatchet “molecule” is provided to describe ideas related to the kinetic molecule theory. In science Insights: experimenting Matter and Energy, the atomic concept is no contrasted to naive theory (such as matter being constant or just including particles), as the explain of the an essential idea does.
Idea b: these particles are incredibly small—far too tiny to see straight through a microscope.
over there is a partial content match. The adhering to presentation of Idea b mirrors which parts of the idea are treated (in bold) and also what alternative vocabulary, if any, is supplied (in brackets): this particles are incredibly small—far too small to see directly through a microscope. A few times, the student Edition describes the particles that issue is make of as tiny (for example, “All forms of matter are made up of small particles that room in consistent motion”
over there is a content match. The idea the particles are moving constantly is stated briefly in a few instances in the student Edition. The idea that “all develops of issue are consisted of of tiny particles that are in continuous motion” is introduced as the particle design of issue in chapter 6 (p. 135s). The idea of moving particles appears in a section describing the different motions of particles in solids, liquids, and also gases, yet it is not declared explicitly the particles of all substances are in constant activity in all phases. Before the concept of temperature is connected to molecular motion, the text refers to details substances who molecules room constantly in motion: Recall that all matter is consisted of of molecules that space in consistent motion. The gas molecule that consist of air move openly all roughly you. Molecules of water move about in a container. The molecule in your chair continuous move back and forth, or vibrate.
Idea d: raised temperature way greater molecule motion, so most substances expand when heated.
there is a contents match. The idea that increasing the temperature of a substance (or adding heat energy to a substance) rises the movement (or speed) of its particles appears in the student Edition in a selection of contexts. The is presented briefly in chapter 6 in the explanation of properties of matter: “The rate of particle movement changes with temperature. Together the temperature increases, the speed of the particles in issue increases. Particle motion determines even if it is a substance will certainly be a solid, liquid, or gas” (p. 138s). Then, that is provided to specify the relationship between the temperature the a gas and its volume. Chapter 9 offers the idea that raised temperature method greater molecular movement to explain heat transport by conduction and convection, melting, and boiling. It additionally links the idea to thermal expansion and also accounts because that the thermal development of liquids in thermometers. Thing 15: Sound supplies the idea come elucidate the increase in the rate of sound once the temperature of the waiting increases, and Chapter 21: systems Chemistry explains why temperature affects solution rate. In thing 9, “temperature” is identified as “
Idea e: there are distinctions in the arrangement and also motion that atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and also gases. In solids, corpuscle (1) space packed closely, (2) space (often) i ordered it regularly, (3) vibrate in all directions, (4) attract and “stick to” one another. In liquids, particles (1) are packed closely, (2) room not i ordered it regularly, (3) have the right to slide previous one another, (4) attract and also are linked loosely come one another. In gases, particles (1) are much apart, (2) are arranged randomly, (3) spread evenly through the spaces lock occupy, (4) relocate in every directions, (5) are free of one another, except throughout collisions.
over there is a partial content match. The adhering to presentation that Idea e mirrors which parts of the idea space treated (in bold) and what different vocabulary, if any, is supplied (in brackets): There are distinctions in the arrangement and motion the atoms and also molecules in solids, liquids, and also gases. In solids, corpuscle (1) are packed closely, (2) are (often) i ordered it regularly, (3) vibrate in every directions, (4) attract and also “stick to” one another. In liquids, corpuscle (1) room packed closely, (2) room not arranged regularly, (3) have the right to slide previous one another, (4) attract and also are linked loosely to one another. In gases, corpuscle (1) are much apart, (2) are arranged randomly, (3) spread evenly through the spaces lock occupy, (4) relocate in every directions, (5) are cost-free of one another, except throughout collisions. Almost all of the components of Idea e are addressed once in chapter 6: nature of Matter, in the description of the phases the matter. However, some components are no covered; they space item 4 that solids, article 4 that liquids, article 2 that gases, the concept of particles being “spread evenly” in article 3 of gases, and also the ide of your moving easily “except throughout collisions” in item 5 the gases. The various motion that the particles of solids, liquids, and also gases is illustrated with one analogy to the motion of children in and after class. The various arrangement and also motion of particles of solids and liquids are attached briefly come the identify shape and volume the solids and to the lack of definite form of liquids. The text claims that corpuscle of gases do not stick come one another and that, “nlike the particles in a solid or liquid, each gas bit is largely unaffected by its neighbors” (p. 142s). In addition, the various strength the attraction in between particles the diamond, graphite, and soot is linked to the truth that these products have different properties (without stating what the nature are). However, the ideas that particles in all solids and liquids tempt one another, or the particles in solids “stick to” one another, while corpuscle in liquids are associated loosely come one one more are not addressed specifically.
Idea f: changes of state—melting, freezing, evaporating, condensing—can be defined in terms of alters in the arrangement, interaction, and motion that atoms and molecules.
there is a partial contents match. The complying with presentation the Idea b mirrors which parts of the idea space treated (in bold) and also what alternate vocabulary, if any, is provided (in brackets): Changes that state—melting, freezing, evaporating, condensing—can be explained in terms of alters in the arrangement, interaction, and also motion of atoms and also molecules. There are brief and also incomplete explanations of melting, boiling, and evaporation, however only in terms of the raised motion the a substance’s molecules. For example: “When warm is applied to ice, the water molecule in the ice cream vibrate faster. The ice melts as it changes from a solid come a liquid” (p. 222s). Explanations of freezing and also evaporation in ~ the molecular level are not included.
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The message asserts the an essential ideas without developing an evidence-based dispute to support them.
The crucial ideas space treated largely as isolated pieces of info in chapters that room organized roughly topics, quite than roughly a coherent collection of physical scientific research concepts. Back the text periodically mentions that students have had actually experience with an idea—for example, prior to defining temperature together the measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecule in a substance, students room asked come “Recall the all issue is comprised of molecules that room in constant motion” (p. 209s)—this is no done systematically, nor space the experiences explained specifically. Because that instance, the idea that enhanced temperature means greater molecule motion appears in several places. In chapter 6, this idea come up in the context of Charles’ Law; in thing 9, that is provided to describe the thermal expansion of liquids in thermometers in the discussion of measure up temperature; later in the exact same chapter, it is used to define and explain thermal growth in general and to give examples of heat expansion. However, no connections are made between these instances.
Like every chapter in scientific research Insights: trying out Matter and Energy, the chapters that room related very closely to the kinetic molecular concept include plenty of features (e.g., Themes in Science, complete the Sciences, STS Connection) that space intended to integrate the sciences, connect science to various other disciplines, and also integrate science, technology, and society (p. T–35). However, the connections to be made carry out not contribute to students’ understanding of the an essential physical science ideas. For example, some features simply emphasize labeling various phenomena as physical transforms (e.g., pp. 147t, 148t).
In other cases, the link that the product tries to do is contrived and relates just tangentially to the content of the section. For example, in a ar on the nature of gases and their explanation in ~ the molecule level, the text says in completely the sciences that throughout photosynthesis, plants release oxygen right into the air and suggests the students check out bubbles of oxygen developing on plant leaves in one aquarium (p. 142s).
science Insights: experimenting Matter and Energy go far beyond the key idea the all issue is comprised of atoms and also includes content that is much more appropriate for high school students, well past the scope of the science literacy concepts in Benchmarks because that Science literacy (American Association for the development of Science, 1993) and also National Science education and learning Standards (National research Council, 1996). Because that example, the text examines Thomson’s, Rutherford’s, and Bohr’s models the the atom, the electron cloud model, the structure of the nucleus, atomic numbers and isotopes, and also mass number and atomic mass. However, as soon as treating the kinetic molecule theory, the product does no go also much past the level of sophistication of the an essential ideas.
The evaluation teams developed a summary assessment the the most usual kinds that errors uncovered in every of the three topic areas—physical science, earth science, and life science. In this context, “errors” is bring away to median not just outright inaccuracies, but likewise those instances in which the product is an extremely likely to cause or assistance student misconceptions. Overall, inducement to misconstrue is the many serious problem of accuracy in the evaluate materials.
The review teams’ cumulative findings, gift below, should be taken together having basic applicability to all of the evaluated materials, not complete and certain applicability in toto to any kind of one the them.
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Identified errors take place most generally in drawings and other diagrams. They take the kind of depictions that are most likely to either give rise to or reinforce misconceptions commonly held by students. Complying with are physical science examples of the type of misleading illustrative products of most worry to the testimonial teams:
Diagrams and also drawings that present atoms or molecule of solids, liquids, and gases in colored backgrounds (for example, water molecules inside blue autumn shapes) and that thereby can initiate or reinforce the misconception that particles are had in solids, liquids, and also gases, in contrast to the correct idea the substances consist of particles (with empty room between particles). This misconception may be further reinforced through the wording of diagram labels, such together “solid particles in heavy water and water corpuscle in liquid water” (emphasis added). Similarly, explanation such as “explanations for what is inside things” may imply that matter consists of particles (as fine as various other things), rather than that matter is made of particles.
Diagrams the solids (and sometimes liquids) that do not depict the activity of atom or molecules can offer rise to, or reinforce, the misconception that atoms or molecules of solids (or liquids) are still.
Diagrams that display molecules that liquids much farther apart than the molecules of solids are misleading; in many liquids, molecule are just a small farther apart.
Diagrams that display particles of a problem in the solid, liquid, and also gaseous state in various colors deserve to reinforce the erroneous idea the the particles themselves space different, no their arrangement and motion. Similarly, diagrams that display particles the a substance transforming size as the substance changes state can give rise to the misconception the the molecules themselves readjust size, ending up being larger as soon as heated.
The usage of imprecise the inaccurate language is problematic in message materials, not solely in illustrations. Special, language the does not preserve a clear difference between substances and also atoms or molecules can mislead students come attribute macroscopic properties or actions (such together hardness, shade or physics state) come individual atom or molecules. For example, statements such as “the particles of perfume are relocating farther apart together they change right into a gas and diffuse transparent the air,” “write a story from the point of view of a fragment in the heavy phase together it melts and also then evaporates,” and also “draw what happens when the particles readjust state” (emphasis added) indicate inaccurately that the corpuscle themselves adjust state (melt, evaporate, etc.).