One the the good things around food science is getting to test everything. It’s a lot of fun to geezer out over the details, to try various experiments, and to find out the processes that enter making our daily foods. Take it yogurt. Us eat it every the time, however how is it made? wherein does it come from? (Besides the plastic container in your refrigerator that girlfriend bought in ~ the store!)
Making yogurt is extremely easy, especially once you know some that the scientific research behind it. A bunch the different species of “friendly” bacteria chow under on the lactose street in milk, developing lactic mountain as a byproduct. This process—which is the very same whether you do your very own yogurt or buy stuff that’s do in vast stainless steel vats—is dubbed fermentation, and also it likewise changes the structure of the milk, transforming it right into a gel.
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Here’s where we acquire to get geeky.
You might not think that yogurt together a gel, yet from a food scientific research perspective, it is. Gels—yes, that consists of Jell-O—are what a chemist would call a colloid. Colloids room combinations a gas, liquid, and solids; and also in food science, they come up a lot. Liquid tool with gas bubbles? Foams. Think whipped cream. Liquid medium with various other liquids blended in (but no actually liquified together)? Emulsions favor mayonnaise and also milk. And also a heavy object with liquid mixed in? Gels, including yogurt.
Gels, gift colloids that trap liquid in a heavy medium, deserve to only hold so much liquid before that solid medium is “full.” If you’ve ever noticed some liquid relaxing on height of your yogurt, that’s some of the fluid in the gel weeping out. (Your regional chemist will certainly tell friend this is contact “syneresis.” chemists seem to have a word because that everything…)
How is knowing any kind of of this valuable in the kitchen? once you understand that yogurt is make by bacteria reproduction in milk and also creating a gel, you deserve to start asking part pretty smart questions:
How walk temperature impact the capability of bacteria come reproduce? walk it change the capability of the gelatin to hold onto liquid?
Since there’s much more than one kind of bacteria, carry out the different varieties breed at different rates depending on the temperature? does that readjust the texture and also flavor of the end product?
If the lactic mountain is water soluble, and the final yogurt is a gel, does straining the yogurt to make Greek-style yogurt remove lactic acid and remove the tartness?
That’s a most questions, and if you were to stop and think about it, you could have several of your own. Tackling these questions with a scientific method and part easy testing is a good way to learn what works.
Let’s start by do a batch the yogurt. It’s basic enough: toss a spoonful the yogurt right into a container the milk, let it sit long sufficient (4-8 hours) in a warm atmosphere (100-110°F), and you’re done. The spoonful of yogurt acts together a starter; her bacteria have to come indigenous somewhere. Given enough time at the appropriate temperatures, they’ll multiply, perform their thing, and also leave you through yogurt. At sight simple. (Make sure your beginning yogurt claims “live culture” what on the container. It transforms out to it is in really hard to recovery dead yogurt bacteria.)
For united state to execute a more controlled experiment, we’re going to need to hold things a bit much more constant. Let’s test exactly how temperature effects the flavor. This time, make 2 batches, measuring things out much more precisely so the you recognize the 2 batches are the same except everything it is you going to test.
Snag 2 quart-sized glass milk jugs. Lug a half-gallon of milk to a scalding temperature (say, roughly 180°F), then fill each yogurt container with the milk. As soon as the milk has dropped under to 110°F, add one tablespoon of her starter yogurt to every container. (You need to wait till the milk has cooled down, otherwise you’ll kill the bacteria in the starter yogurt! Again, dead bacteria don’t multiply for this reason well…) Wrap some plastic wrap over the top to store things clean.
You need to now have actually two virtually identical containers. Shot putting one in a warmer clues – a home window sill, on top of a heating vent, in your stove (off!) v the cooktop light ~ above – and the second in a slightly cooler spot. Keep tabs ~ above the temperature of each; utilizing a kitchen probe thermometer to measure the temperature every hour and also keep notes. How do the 2 batches differ end time? Is one noticeably runnier than the other? Is one tangier than the other?
The good thing about experimenting with yogurt is that the process is reasonably easy. Once you begin thinking this method in the kitchen, discovering to cook becomes a whole lot easier. Any type of time you’re following a recipe and also not sure which way to carry out something, execute a split A/B test. Sometimes it’s easy. With points like chocolate chip cookies, split the dough in fifty percent and add walnuts to one half, pecans to the other, then check out which ones her boyfriend, girlfriend, children or lucky beta testers prefer. Various other times, doing this experiments can prove to it is in a bit an ext challenging. (Google “nerd sniping.”) Regardless, you’ll become a better cook, and also besides, how numerous other areas can say that their data is as delicious?
One last word that warning before turning you loose on the microbial people of yogurt: there space some precautions you have to take to stop culturing the wrong sort of bacteria. Also with a substantial head-start, the friendly bacteria you’ve added might acquire crowded out by other species of bacteria that aren’t so benevolent. Because that this reason, it’s typical practice come scald the milk and also sterilize her yogurt-making container. Is likewise for this reason that yogurt need to be made in a warm environment, generally over 100°F. Because that a an excellent write-up on yogurt making and also safety, watch the Making Yogurt in ~ Home: nation Living Series.
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P.S. If you’re trying to find something to execute with all the yogurt after you’re done, shot adding a bit of honey and also mixing it through fruit. For a savory use, include herbs and also spices-parsley, mint, or cumin-and use as a dive or condiment. And also if it’s also runny, you deserve to strain it: line a colander through a file towel, location over a bowl, move the yogurt to the lined colander, and also let remainder in the refrigerator overnight.