Weather acts with visibility impairments, precipitation, high winds, and temperature extremes to influence driver capabilities, car performance (i.e., traction, stability and also maneuverability), pavement friction, roadway infrastructure, crash risk, web traffic flow, and firm productivity. The table below, summarizes the impacts of assorted weather occasions on roadways, website traffic flow, and also operational decisions.

Table: Weather results on Roads, Traffic and also Operational decision roadway Weather Variables Roadway results Traffic Flow effects Operational impacts waiting temperature and also humidity Wind speed Precipitation (type, rate, start/end times) Fog Pavement temperature Pavement problem Water level
N/A N/A road treatment strategy (e.g., snow and ice control) building and construction planning (e.g., paving and striping)
Visibility street (due come blowing snow, dust) roadway obstruction (due come wind-blown snow, debris) Traffic rate Travel time hold-up Accident risk automobile performance (e.g., stability) accessibility control (e.g., restrict automobile type, nearby road) Evacuation decision support
Visibility distance Pavement friction lane obstruction Roadway capacity Traffic speed Travel time delay Accident threat car performance (e.g., traction) Driver capabilities/behavior roadway treatment strategy traffic signal timing speed limit manage Evacuation decision assistance Institutional coordination
Visibility distance Traffic rate Speed variance travel time hold-up Accident threat Driver capabilities/behavior road treatment strategy access control rate limit control
Infrastructure damages N/A roadway treatment strategy
Pavement friction Infrastructure damage Roadway capacity Traffic speed Travel time delay Accident risk vehicle performance Driver capabilities/behavior (e.g., course choice) road treatment strategy web traffic signal timing rate limit manage
lane submersion Traffic rate Travel time delay Accident threat accessibility control Evacuation decision assistance Institutional coordination

Weather results on Safety

on average, there room over 5,891,000 automobile crashes each year. About 21% of this crashes - almost 1,235,000 - room weather-related. Weather-related crashes are identified as those crashes that take place in disadvantage weather (i.e., rain, sleet, snow, fog, significant crosswinds, or blowing snow/sand/debris) or ~ above slick pavement (i.e., wet pavement, snowy/slushy pavement, or icy pavement). Top top average, virtually 5,000 people are killed and also over 418,000 civilization are hurt in weather-related crashes every year. (Source: Ten-year averages native 2007 come 2016 analyzed through Booz Allen Hamilton, based upon NHTSA data). The vast majority of many weather-related crashes occur on wet pavement and during rainfall: 70% ~ above wet pavement and 46% throughout rainfall. A much smaller percent of weather-related crashes occur during winter conditions: 18% during snow or sleet, 13% occur on icy pavement and also 16% the weather-related crashes take ar on snowy or slushy pavement. Only 3% occur in the existence of fog. (Source: Ten-year averages native 2007 to 2016 analyzed by Booz Allen Hamilton, based upon NHTSA data). Table: Weather-Related Crash Statistics (Annual Averages)

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Weather-Related Crash Statistics
10-year mean (2007-2016)
10-year Percentages
Weather-Related* Crashes, Injuries, and also Fatalities
1,235,145 crashes 21% of car crashes
418,005 persons injured 19% of crash injuries
5,376 persons killed 16% that crash fatalities
* "Weather-Related" crashes space those that occur in the visibility of disadvantage weather and/or slick pavement conditions. Table: Weather-Related Crash Statistics (Annual Averages) roadway Weather problems
Weather-Related Crash Statistics
10 Year mean (2007 - 2016)

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10-year Percentages
Wet Pavement Rain Snow/Sleet Icy Pavement Snow/Slushy Pavement Fog
860,286 crashes 15% of vehicle crashes 70% of weather-related crashes
324,394 persons injured 15% the crash injuries 78% that weather-related injuries
4,050 persons killed 12% the crash fatalities 76% that weather-related fatalities
556,151 crashes 10% of car crashes 46% of weather-related crashes
212,647 people injured 10% the crash injuries 51% of weather-related injuries
2,473 persons killed 8% of crash fatalities 46% the weather-related fatalities
219,942 crashes 4% of auto crashes 18% of weather-related crashes
54,839 persons injured 3% the crash injuries 14% of weather-related injuries
688 people killed 2% the crash fatalities 13% of weather-related fatalities
156,164 crashes 3% of vehicle crashes 13% the weather-related crashes
41,860 persons injured 2% that crash injuries 11% the weather-related injuries
521 persons killed 2% the crash fatalities 10% the weather-related fatalities
186,076 crashes 4% of automobile crashes 16% of weather-related crashes
42,036 persons injured 2% that crash injuries 11% that weather-related injuries
496 people killed 2% of crash fatalities 10% of weather-related fatalities
25,451 crashes 1% of auto crashes 3% of weather-related crashes
8,902 persons injured 1% the crash injuries 3% of weather-related injuries
464 persons killed 2% of crash fatalities 9% of weather-related fatalities
through crash kind (not displayed in over table) because that an median year, about 15% of deadly crashes, 19% of injury crashes, and 22% the property-damage-only (PDO) crashes happen in the existence of disadvantage weather and/or slick pavement. The is ~ above an yearly basis, practically 4,900 deadly crashes, over 301,100 injury crashes and almost 919,700 PDO crashes happen in disadvantage weather or ~ above slick pavement. (Source: Ten-year averages indigenous 2007 to 2016 analyzed through Booz Allen Hamilton, based upon NHTSA data).

Weather results on Mobility

volume reductions have the right to be brought about by lane submersion because of flooding and also by roadway obstruction as result of snow buildup and wind-blown debris. Road closures and access restrictions due to hazardous problems (e.g., huge trucks in high winds) likewise decrease roadway capacity.

Weather impacts on Productivity

disadvantage weather can increase operating and also maintenance expenses of winter road maintenance agencies, traffic monitoring agencies, emergency monitoring agencies, regulation enforcement agencies, and commercial car operators (CVOs). annually trucking suppliers or CVOs shed an estimated 32.6 billion auto hours because of weather-related jam in 281 the the nation"s urban areas. Nearly 12 percent of full estimated truck hold-up is because of weather in the 20 cities with the best volume of van traffic. The estimated expense of weather-related hold-up to trucking suppliers ranges native 2.2 exchange rate dollars come 3.5 billion dollars annually. (Source: " Analysis the Weather Incident results on Commercial auto Mobility in large U.S. Cities," Mitretek Systems).

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