Phosphorus, achemical element with the price P and atomic number 15, is an important elementfor life together it is one of the significant components the DNA, RNA, ATP, and also phospholipids.The element phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus, and also redphosphorus however due come high reactivity, that does not found in a cost-free state on earth.

You are watching: How many valence electrons does a phosphorus atom have

It oxidation statesare varies from -3 to +5 (-3, -2,-1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5) and also its electronegativityvalue is 2.19 according to the Pauli scale.

You are below toknow valence electron of phosphorus atom, aren’t you? Don’t worry along with phosphorusvalence electrons us will describe its valency also. But before that let’s havesome an easy ideas about what these two terms are:

Difference BetweenValence Electrons and Valency

Valence electronsare the total variety of electrons current in the outermost shell of one atom(i.e. In outermost orbital). The valence electrons because that a neutral atom arealways definite, it can not be varied (more or less) in any condition for aparticular atom and also may or may not be same to its valency.


Valency is definedas the total variety of electrons, one atom deserve to lose, gain, or share at the timeof bond development to gain a stable digital configuration i.e. To finish anoctet. The valency of an atom have the right to be variable in different compounds or chemicalreactions as result of the different bonding circumstances. Many of the moment valencyvaries/changes early out to change in oxidation and reduction states.

Phosphorus (P)Valence Electrons

There room foursimple steps to discover out the valence electrons for phosphorus atom i m sorry are:

Step 1: uncover theAtomic Number


To find out theatomic number of phosphorus, we deserve to use the periodic table. V the aid ofthe periodic table, we can quickly see that the atomic variety of phosphorus is 15.As its atom number is 15, it has 15 protons, and for neutral phosphorus, thenumber of protons is constantly equal to the number of electrons i.e. Has 15electrons in that is nucleus.

Step 2: WriteElectron Configuration


Electronconfiguration is the setup of electron on the orbitals. The phosphorusatom has actually a total of 15 electron so, we need to put 15 electron in orbitals. Theelectrons will certainly be inserted in various orbitals follow to the power level:<1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f>. Now,

Phosphorus electronconfiguration p (15) =1s22s22p63s23p3(completeconfiguration).

= 3s²3p³(condensed configuration).

Step 3: DetermineValence Shell

As us know, thevalence covering of one atom have the right to be found from the highest variety of principlequantum numbers which space expressed in the term of n, and also in 3s²3p³, thehighest value of n is 3 so that the valence covering of phosphorus is3s²3p³.

Step 4: FindValence Electrons

The total number ofelectrons existing in the valence shell of one atom are referred to as valence electrons,and there space a complete of five electrons present in the valence shell of phosphorus(3s²3p³). Thus,phosphorus has five valence electrons.

Valency of Phosphorus(P)

There room manydifferent ways to discover out the valency of an atom which reflects the capability ofan atom to bond with various other atoms. Valence defines how conveniently an atom or afree radical can combine with other chemical species. The valency of an atom isdetermined based on the number of electrons lost, gained, or common withanother atom at the moment of shortcut formation.

An atom is claimed tobe stable when its outermost shells have actually eight electron (except H & He).If the total number of electrons in outermost shells is in between one to four,the atom has positive valency and if electrons are in between four to eight, thevalency is calculate by individually from eight and valency will be zero. Atomshaving 4 outermost electrons possess both confident and an adverse valency, andatoms having actually eight outermost electrons, valency will be zero (i.e. Noblegases).

Elements favor phosphoruscan reach the stable state (nearest inert gas configuration: Ar) by obtaining 3 electrons.Sothat the valency that phosphorus is 3 (trivalent).

Note: Basically, phosphorushas a stable oxidation state that +3 and also +5 in link formations so the itcan forms both PCl3 and also PCl5 in secure states. Carry out not confuse with +3 or +5,it is simply an oxidation number that can vary from compound to compound. However itsvalency is 3 just in any case.

In another sense, aphosphorus atom can kind a preferably of three covalent bonds in chemical bonding (Forexample: PH3, PCl3, etc.), and that what valency is, the maximum capability to formbonds through atoms at the moment of chemistry reactions.

See more: How To Convince Your Girlfriend To Have A Baby But My Girlfriend Doesn'T

We can additionally find the valency of phosphorus withthe aid of the routine table. Together phosphorus belong to group 15 (5A or VA) with nonmetal nitrogen (N), the metalloids arsenic (As) and also antimony (Sb), andthe steel bismuth (Bi). This group aspects are also called pnictogens. Every theseelements have actually a valency that 3.