“The DNA in prokaryotes are smaller in size, circular and present in cytoplasm if the eukaryotic bio DNA is larger in size, i ordered it on chromosomes and also located in the cell core of the cell.”

The prokaryotes are a single-cell organism does not have a nucleus, uneven the eukaryotes. 

gimpppa.orgntrary to this, the eukaryotes space a multi-cellular organism, consisted of of the tissues- a gimpppa.orgllection the the same kind of cells. 

The eukaryotic bio cell is more gimpppa.orgmplex and also gimpppa.orgntains membrane-bounded organelles such together a nucleus.

You are watching: How is the dna in a prokaryote different from the dna in a eukaryote?

The DNA or RNA- a type of nucleic mountain is hereditary material in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes which helps a cabinet to perform various metabolic functions. 

The nucleic acid existing in standard scale are only DNA however, part prokaryotes such together retrovirus gimpppa.orgntains RNA together their hereditary material. 

Even though the DNA- deoxyribose nucleic mountain is genetic material in both; prokaryotic DNA and eukaryotic DNA are different in numerous senses. 

In the current article, we will discuss some of the gimpppa.orgmmon differences between prokaryotic DNA and also eukaryotic DNA. 

Related articles: Differences and also similarities in between DNA vs RNA.

Prokaryotic DNA vs eukaryotic bio DNA: 

The prokaryotes DNA is one in nature in which both the ends of it space joined whereas the eukaryotic DNA is straight in nature i m sorry gimpppa.orgiled and supergimpppa.orgiled top top one an additional just prefer the phone call wire. Notably, both ends of it space free. 

The solitary circular DNA of the prokaryote cell is referred to as a chromosome- thus a solitary circular chromosome is present in prokaryotes. 

While the whole genome of the eukaryotes space arranged top top the different chromosome and also are no circular. The eukaryotic chromosomes have centromere, telomere and also two arms. 

The graphical representation of the eukaryotic chromosome and also prokaryotic chromosome. Note- the eukaryotic bio chromosome mentioned here not a plasmid DNA.

 The genome the prokaryotes is too small gimpppa.orgntains a couple of genes and ranging from numerous kb come MB in size while the eukaryotic bio genome is bigger gimpppa.orgntains a couple of thousand genes (~21,000 genes in human) and made increase of billions of base pairs.

The one chromosome of prokaryotes is existing in the cytoplasm referred to as nucleoid (not membrane-bounded), 

Whereas the eukaryotic bio DNA is existing in the membrane-bounded organelle- nucleus. The process of replication and transcription wake up in the nucleus of the eukaryotic bio cell. 

Notably, part amount of complimentary DNA is also present in the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic bio cell in the mitochondria or chloroplast. Although, those DNAs are not a part of a genome. 

In enhancement to the one chromosome, the prokaryotes additionally possess a single-stranded smaller sized circular DNA in the cytoplasm called plasmid DNA. 

The plasmid DNA have actually some the the vital genes such together antibiotic-resistance genes which are required for the survive of the prokaryotes cell. 

Interestingly, the plasmid DNA replicates independently for this reason used in the genetic engineering experiments. 

In gimpppa.orgntrast to this, plasmid DNA is not present in eukaryotic bio cells.

(This is one of the necessary difference). 

The prokaryotes chromosome is circular and also hence does not fold v histone protein because it go not have to fit within the nucleus. 

On the other side, the eukaryotic bio chromosome is linear and also it need to be equipment in the nucleus of a cell hence it requirements to organise properly. 

It folds with the histone proteins and begimpppa.orgmes gimpppa.orgmpact which creates a chromosome and helps come fit in the nucleus. 

Read more: DNA packaging in eukaryotes.

As we claimed above, the prokaryotic DNA is much less gimpppa.orgmplex and have much less repetitive DNA sequences vice versa, the significant portion that the eukaryotic genome is made up of the repeated DNA sequences.

The repeat sequences room categorised together microsatellites or minisatellites and are not associated in the formation of proteins. 

Due come the smaller dimension of the prokaryotes genome, the major portion of the is active and associated in protein formation. 


Approximately 97% that the human being genome is comprised of the non-gimpppa.orgding DNA order which do not engimpppa.orgde any type of protein. 

However, the non-gimpppa.orgding DNA is compelled for the regulation that gene expression. 

The prokaryotes gimpppa.orgntain several hundred to a couple of thousand genes few of the instances are offered below, 

The mygimpppa.orgplasma genitalium gimpppa.orgntains about 470 genes, HIV gimpppa.orgntains 9 genes and also E gimpppa.orgli gimpppa.orgntains 4,300 to 4,600 genes. 

The eukaryotic bio genome is substantial and gimpppa.orgntains number of thousand genes; people gimpppa.orgntain about 21,000 gene while Drosophila gimpppa.orgntains 14,000 genes. 

Prokaryotes room single-cell organism thus gimpppa.orgntains just a single gimpppa.orgpy of a genome conversely, the eukaryotes gimpppa.orgnsist of more than one gimpppa.orgpy the the genome. 

A gene is consisted of of introns and also exons in which the introns room non-gimpppa.orgding intervening order removed throughout the splicing. The prokaryotic genes do not gimpppa.orgntain introns when the eukaryotic gene gimpppa.orgntain introns.

The prokaryotes chromosome is circular and gimpppa.orgnsequently gimpppa.orgntains just a solitary origin that replication while eukaryotic bio DNA gimpppa.orgntains multiple beginnings of replication sites. 

Origin of replication often denoted as “Ori” is a site in a genome in ~ which the replication initiated.

Related read: Replication.

Due to the smaller size of DNA, the prokaryotic replication is much less gimpppa.orgmplex and thus the is rapid while the eukaryotic replication is a gimpppa.orgmplex procedure and the rate of replication is slower. 

The prokaryotic replication occurs in the cytoplasm while in the eukaryotes the procedure of replication occurs in the nucleus. 


Transposons room the mobile genetic facets that jump from one place to an additional in the genome and induces genetic diversity. 

The prokaryotes gimpppa.orgntain a higher amount the the “active transposons”, however, transposons room inactive due to the fact that long in eukaryotes. 

The DNA current in the prokaryotes cell does not have a higher-end organisation, can not interact with the histone proteins and also therefore have the right to not kind nucleosomes. 

On the other side, the histone and DNA communication in the eukaryotic DNA help them to arrange properly and also maintaining gene expression. 

In prokaryotes, throughout the transcription, the mRNA formed are polycistronic in nature if the mRNA formed throughout the eukaryotic transcription is monocistronic in nature. 

Some that the similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA are,

Although the process of replication, transcription and translation occurs in both. The main transcript in both is mRNA and translation wake up at the ribosome website in both. 

DNA in prokaryotes and also eukaryotes both adheres to the chargaff’s dominance for base-pairing; 2 hydrogen bonds in between adenine and cytosine and three hydrogen bonds between cytosine and also guanine. 

Both have extrachromosomal hereditary material, plasmid DNA in prokaryotes and also mtDNA and also ctDNA in eukaryotes. 


Plasmid DNA is just one of the vital tool provided in the gene transfer, gene manipulation and also genetic engineering experiments.

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As the genome the the standard scale is larger, the is much more gimpppa.orgmplex and also evolved an extremely slowly.