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Subjects > computer system Studies > form 3 > DATA processing IN COMPUTERDATA processing IN COMPUTER
Introduction

Data procesing refers come the transformating raw data into meaningful output.

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Data have the right to be excellent manually using a pen and paper, mechanically using simple devices eg typewritter or electronically utilizing modern dat processing toolseg computers
Data collection requires getting the data/facts necessary for handling from the point of its origin to the computer

Data Input- the collected data is converted right into machine-readable kind by an input device, and also send right into the machine.

Processing is the transformation that the entry data come a an ext meaningful kind (information) in the CPU

Output is the production of the forced information, which might be entry in future.

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The difference between data collection and also data capture.

Data capture is the process of obtaining data in a computer-sensible kind for at the point of beginning (the source paper itself is all set in a machine-sensible kind for input)

Data collection involves getting the initial data to the ‘processing centre’, transcribing it, converting it native one tool to another, and finally acquiring it into the computer.

Relevance of the term rubbish in garbage out (GIGO) in recommendation to errors in data processing.

The accuracy that the data entered in the computer system directly identify the accuracy that the information given out.

Give and explain two transcription and two computational errors committed during data processing.

Misreading errors: -they occur when the user reads source document incorrectly, hence entering not correct values, e.g. A user may confuse 5 in the number 586 through S, and form S86 instead.

Transposition errors: - they an outcome from incorrect arrangement of characters (i.e., putting characters in the dorn order specifically when keying data ~ above a diskette), e.g. The user may get in 396 instead of 369 computational errors

Overflow errors: -An overflow occurs if the result from a calculation is too big to to the right in the allocated storage space, e.g., if the allocated memory room is able to save an 8-bit character, climate an overflow will occur if the an outcome of the calculation provides a 9-bit number.

UnderflowTruncation: 0.784969 784Rounding error:30.6666 7Algorithm or ,logical errors

Data integrity.

Data integrity refers to the dependability, timeliness, availability, relevance, accuracy & completeness of data/informationThreats to data integrity


Human error, whether malicious or unintentional.Transfer errors, consisting of unintended alterations or data compromise during transfer from one an equipment to another.Bugs, viruses/malware, hacking, and also other cyber threats.Compromised hardware, such together a device or disc crash.

Ways the minimizing threats to data integrity.

Backing up the data on exterior storage mediaEnforcing security steps to control access to dataUsing error detection & correction software once transmitting dataDesigning user interfaces the minimize chances of invalid data being entered.DATA processing METHODS

Data processing methods

1. Manual Data Processing

In manual data processing, data is processed manually without making use of any maker or device to get forced results. In hand-operated data processing, all the calculations and also logical operations are performed manually ~ above the data. Similarly, data is transferred manually native one place to another. This technique of data handling is really slow and also errors may occur in the output. Mostly, is processed manually in many tiny business firms and government offices & institutions. In an education institute, because that example, marks sheets, fees receipts, and also other gaue won calculations (or transactions) space performed by hand. This an approach is avoided as far as possible because that the really high probability that error, labor intensive and an extremely time consuming. This form of data processing forms the really primitive stage when modern technology was not available or that was no affordable. Through the development in an innovation the suspended on hands-on methods has considerably decreased.

2. Mechanical Data Processing

In mechanical data processing method, data is handle by using different tools like typewriters, mechanical printers or various other mechanical devices. This an approach of data handling is faster and an ext accurate than hands-on data processing. These are much faster than the manual mode but still forms the early on stages the data processing. With invention and evolution of more complex machines with far better computing power this form of processing also started fading away. Examination boards and also printing press use mechanically data processing devices frequently.

3. Electronic Data Processing

Electronic data handling or EDP is the modern an approach to procedure data. The data is processed through computer; Data and set of indict are offered to the computer system as input and the computer immediately processes the data follow to the given collection of instructions. The computer system is also known as electronic data handling machine.

This an approach of processing data is an extremely fast and accurate. Because that example, in a computerized education and learning environment results of student are ready through computer; in banks, account of client are preserved (or processed) through computer systems etc.

a. Batch Processing

Batch processing is a technique where the details to be arranged is sorted into teams to allow for efficient and sequential processing. Online processing is a method that utilizes internet connections and also equipment straight attached to a computer. That is used greatly for details recording and research. Real-Time processing is a technique that has the capacity to respond nearly immediately to miscellaneous signals in bespeak to get and procedure information. Dispersed Processing is frequently utilized by far workstations associated to one big main workstation or server. ATMs are great examples the this data handling method.

b. Online Processing

This is a technique that utilizes internet connections and also equipment straight attached to a computer. This enables for the data save on computer in one place and also being provided at altogether different place. Cloud computer can be considered as a example which offers this type of processing. That is used greatly for info recording and also research.

c. Real-Time Processing

This method has the capability to respond nearly immediately to various signals in stimulate to obtain and procedure information. These involve high maintainance andupfront cost attributed to an extremely advanced modern technology and computer power. Time saved is maximum in this case as the output is seen in actual time. For example in bank transactions example of genuine time processing

Airline preventive systemsTheatre (cinema) bookingHotel reservationsBanking systemsPolice enquiry systemsChemical handling plantsHospitals to monitor the progression of a patientMissile control systemsAdvantagesProvides up-to-date informationThe information is readily available for prompt decision-makingProvides far better services to users/customers.Fast &reliableReduces circulation the hardcopies.

Disadvantages

Require facility Os & are an extremely expensiveNot basic to developReal time equipment usually use 2 or an ext processors come share the workloads, i m sorry is expensive.Require large communication equipment.

d. Distributed Processing

This an approach is generally utilized by remote workstations associated to one big central workstation or server. ATMs are great examples that this data processing method. All the finish machines run on a solved software located at a specific place and also makes usage of exactly same information and also sets the instruction.

The Differentiate between CPU bound jobs and I/O tied jobs.

CPU tied jobs require much more of the CPU time to procedure these jobs. Most of the occupational the I/O gadgets perform is ~ above the Input; and Output; hence, they need very little CPU time.

Most companies are now shifting indigenous the usage of geographically distributed personal computers. This method of data handling is well-known as Distributed Data processing (DDP)

Three computing resources that have the right to be distributed.

-CPU (Processors) time

-Files

-Application software

-Data/information/messages

-Computer processing power

-Memory (computer storage)

- Input/Output devices, e.g. Printers

-communication devices/communication port

Examples that industries and business institutions that generally use spread processing systems.

BanksComputerized retails stores, e.g. SupermarketsLearning organizations with plenty of departmental officesBureaus or communication cyber cafesAirline reservation systems

Benefits and three dangers that could be linked with the distributed data processing system.

The pack on the host computer system is substantially reduced

The use of low cost minicomputers minimizes the cost in data processingDelays in data processing are reducedProvides far better services come the customersThere is much less risk in instance of device breakdownThe style & implementation the the device is less facility due to decentralizationThe level of expertise required is less.

Risks

Data duplication is very commonProgramming troubles occur through microcomputers & minicomputersSecurity threats, i.e. The data & information sent one the network native one location toanother deserve to be tapped, or listened come by unauthorized partiesMore training is essential for the customers involvedIt is expensive due to the extra price of interaction equipment.

The concept of multi-programming

A Multi-programming system enables the user to run 2 or much more programs, all of which room in the computer’s main memory, at the exact same time.

Benefits that are acquired from multi-programming

It increases productivity of a computerReduces the CPU’s idle timeReduces the incidence the peripheral bound operation

benefits of save on computer data in computer files over the hands-on filing mechanism

Stored details takes up less spaceEasier come update and also modifyProvides faster access and retrieval the dataReduces duplication the data or save on computer recordsCheaperEnhances data verity (i.e. Accuracy and also completeness)

The difference between logical and also physical computer system files.

A logical record is viewed in terms of what data items the contains and also what processing operations might be performed on the data

A physical document is regarded in state of exactly how the data items found in a paper are arranged on the storage media and how they deserve to be processed.

arrange the following contents of the details system data hierarchy in ascending order of complexity:

Field, Database, Byte, Record, Bit, and file

Bit Byte field Record record Database

TYPES OF computer FILES

i) Report file- It includes a collection of relatively permanent records extracted from the data in a understand file.

They are supplied to prepare reports, which have the right to ve printed at a later on date, e.g. Report ~ above student’s class performance in the term, extract of college student who have actually not clearing their school fees, report ~ above absenteesii) Backup file- supplied to backup data or to hold duplicate duplicates of data/information native the computer’s addressed storage or main paper for defense purposes e.g. A copy of all the student admitted in a school fees, report top top absentees

iii) Reference file - provided for recommendation purposes. It includes records the are relatively permanent or semi-permanent, e.g. Deductions in fist money, wage rates, taxation deductions, employees address, price lists etc.

iv) sort file – offered to sort/rank data follow to a given order, e.g. Ranking place in a class of students.v) Transaction record - Is provided to organize input data throughout transaction processing. That is later used come update understand files and also audits daily, weekly or monthly transaction.FILE organization METHODS

What is file organization?

It is the means records room arranged (laid out) in ~ a particular record or any an additional storage maker in a computerRefers come the way data is stored in a fileFile company is important since it determines the method of access, efficiency, flexibility and also storage gadgets to it is in used.

Methods of paper organizationi) Sequential and also serial

In sequential paper organization, records are stored in a sorted order using a

key field, while in serial; the records are stored in the order castle come right into the file, and also are not sorted in any kind of way.ii) Random and indexed-sequential

In random file organization, documents are save in the document randomly and accessed directly, if in indexed –sequential, the records are save sequentially yet accessed straight using an index.

iii) serial record organization

Records space in a paper are stored and also accessed one after another on a warehouse mediumiv) indexed sequencial file organization method

Similar come sequential method, only that an table of contents is used to enable the computer to situate individual documents on the storage media.

ELECTRONIC DATA handling MODESThis is the methods in which a computer system under the influence of one operating device is designed to procedure data ega) Batch processing is the execution the a collection of jobs in a program on a computer without manual intervention (non-interactive). Strict speaking, that is a handling mode: the execution of a collection of programs every on a set or "batch" that inputs, quite than a single entry (which would rather be a practice job). However, this distinction has mostly been lost, and also the series of procedures in a batch procedure are often called a "job" or "batch job".

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Batch processing has these benefits:=

It can transition the time the job processing to when the computing resources are much less busy.It prevents idling the computer resources with minute-by-minute hands-on intervention and also supervision.Rather 보다 running one program multiple times to procedure one transaction each time, batch processes will run the regime only once for numerous transactions, reducing mechanism overhead.

Disadvantages- Users space unable to end a procedure during execution, and also have come wait until execution completes.b)