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Flourished:c.484 BCE - c.420 BCEHalicarnassus?Turkey?...(Show more)Subjects the Study:Persia...(Show more)

Herodotus has actually been dubbed the “father that history.” an engaging narrator through a deep interest in the customs of the human being he described, he remains the leading source of original historical information not only for Greece between 550 and 479BCEbut also for much of western Asia andEgyptat the time.


Herodotus’sHistoryis an account of theGreco-Persian battles (499–479BCE) and the story the the growth and organization that the Persian empire. Herodotus consist of the empire’s geography, society structure, and background before relenten the events which brought about Xerxes’ invasion of Greece and also the Greek city-states uniting to defeat his army.


In addition to writing, Herodotus traveled widely, visiting a huge part of the Persian empire: that went toEgypt, Libya,Syria,Babylonia,SusainElam,Lydia, andPhrygia. He journeyed increase the Hellespont come Byzantium, visitedThraceandMacedonia, and also traveled past theDanubeto Scythia andas far as theDon River.


Herodotus was not one to withstand a great story, and also he has occurred a call for credulity. However, that did notendorseeverything that reported. He thought that his duty to be to record the traditions of various peoples, no matter just how dubious. Despite mistakes, Herodotus is an invaluable resource of information around theGreco-Persian Wars.


Herodotus, (born 484 bce?, Halicarnassus, Asia minor ?—died c. 430–420), Greek author of the very first great narrative history produced in the ancient world, the History that the Greco-Persian Wars.

Scholars think that Herodotus was born in ~ Halicarnassus, a Greek city in southwest Asia Minor that was climate under Persian rule. The an exact dates of his birth and also death room alike uncertain. He is believed to have resided in Athens and also to have met Sophocles and then to have actually left for Thurii, a brand-new colony in southern Italy funded by Athens. The latest occasion alluded come in his History belongs come 430, yet how quickly after or wherein he died is no known. Over there is great reason to think that he was in Athens, or at the very least in central Greece, throughout the beforehand years the the Peloponnesian War, from 431, and also that his work-related was published and also known there prior to 425.

Herodotus was a broad traveler. His much longer wandering spanned a big part that the Persian Empire: he checked out Egypt, at least as much south as Elephantine (Aswān), and also he likewise visited Libya, Syria, Babylonia, Susa in Elam, Lydia, and also Phrygia. He journeyed increase the Hellespont (now Dardanelles) to Byzantium, checked out Thrace and also Macedonia, and also traveled northward to beyond the Danube and to Scythia eastward along the north shores the the black Sea as much as the Don River and some means inland. This travels would have taken many years.


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Structure and scope of the History

Herodotus’s subject in his History is the wars between Greece and also Persia (499–479 bce) and also their preliminaries. As it has survived, the History is split into nine books (the division is not the author’s): books I–V describe the background come the Greco-Persian Wars; books VI–IX contain the history of the wars, finishing in an account that the Persian king Xerxes’ invasion of greek (Book VII) and also the good Greek victories at Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale in 480–479 bce. There space two components in the History, one being the systematic narrative the the battle of 480–479 through its preliminaries indigenous 499 onward (including the Ionian revolt and also the fight of Marathon in book VI), the various other being the story of the growth and also organization the the Persian Empire and a summary of that geography, society structure, and history.


Modern scholar disagree around whether Herodotus native the very first had this setup in mind or had started with a plan for just one part, one of two people a summary of Persia or a background of the war, and also if so, through which. One likely opinion is the Herodotus started with a plan for the background of the war and that later on he made decision on a description of the Persian realm itself. Because that a guy like Herodotus to be bound come ask self what the Persian-led invasion force meant. Herodotus to be deeply impression not just by the great size the the Persian empire but also by the varied and also polyglot nature the its army, which was yet joined in a solitary command, in finish contrast to the Greek pressures with your political divisions and disputatious commanders, back the Greeks mutual a usual language, religion, and means of thought and also the exact same feeling about what they were fighting for. This difference had come be defined to his readers, and also to this end he describes the empire.

A logical link between the two main sections is to be found in the account in publication VII that the westward march of Xerxes’ immense military from Sardis to the Hellespont ~ above the means to the cross by the leg of watercrafts into greece proper. Very first comes a story of Xerxes’ arrogance and also petulance, followed by another of his savage and also autocratic cruelty, and also then comes a lengthy detailed summary of the separate armed forces contingents of the army marching as if ~ above parade, adhered to by a in-depth enumeration of all the national and also racial aspects in the vast invasion force.

Herodotus defines the background and constituent components of the Persian realm in books I–IV. His technique in the account that the empire is to define each division of it no in a geographical order yet rather as each was conquered by Persia—by the succeeding Persian queens Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius. (The one exemption to this arrangement is Lydia, i beg your pardon is cure at the really beginning that the background not because it was very first conquered but because it to be the first foreign country to attack and also overcome the Greek cities of Asia Minor.)

The an initial section of publication I, the background and description of Lydia and also its occupation by the Persians, is followed by the story that Cyrus himself, his loss of the Medes and a summary of Persia proper, his strike on the Massagetae (in the northeast, towards the Caspian), and also his death. Publication II includes the succession of Cambyses, Cyrus’s son, his plan to strike Egypt, and also an immensely lengthy account of that distinctive land and its history. Publication III defines the Persians’ conquest of Egypt, the fail of their invasions to the southern (Ethiopia) and also west; the madness and also death that Cambyses; the battles over the succession in Persia, ending with the selection of Darius together the new king; the company of the vast new empire by him, through some account the the most-distant districts as far eastern as Bactria and also northwest India; and the interior revolts suppressed through Darius. Publication IV begins with the summary and history of the Scythian peoples, native the Danube come the Don, whom Darius propose to attack by cross the Bosporus, and of their land and also of the black color Sea.

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Then adheres to the story the the Persian intrusion of Scythia, which brought with that the submission of much more Greek cities, such as Byzantium; that the Persians’ simultaneous assault from Egypt on Libya, which had actually been conquered by Greeks; and the description of that country and also its colonization. Publication V defines further Persian advancements into Greece ideal from the Hellespont and the submission of Thrace and also Macedonia and also many much more Greek urban to Persian might, climate the start of the revolt of the Greek cities of Ionia against Persia in 499, and also so to the key subject the the entirety work.