In this article, we provide you the background and supplies for the aspects in groups 3-12 – change Metals.

You are watching: Elements in group 3 through 12 are called

Why are the facets in groups 3-12 categorised together?

The facets in teams 3-12 are referred to as the transition metals. They can kind cations of various charges (depending ~ above the metal), v the most usual being +2, +3, and also +4.

The facets in this groups form the d-block, and the partially-filled d-orbitals permit these metals form colourful compounds.

What elements are in groups 3-12 – change Metals?

Click ~ above the following aspects to learn more about them:


Group →Period ↓3456789101112
4ScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZinc
5YttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilver Cadmium
6HafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGold Mercury
7RutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium

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Scandium – Sc – aspect 21

History:

Scandium to be predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 who named it ekaboron. It to be detected ten years later on in 1879 in the mineral gadolinite and euxenite by Lars Fredrik Nilson who called it ~ Scandinavia (Scandia in Latin), together he to be Swedish. Pure samples that scandium steel were not created until 1937 as it is neither particularly easy to extract, numerous nor useful.

Uses:

The main use that scandium is in aluminium alloys to rise their strength for specialty applications in the aerospace industry and for sports equipment.

Display:


Scandium metal crystals and also bicycle seat article clamp (bolt make from scandium alloy)


Titanium – Ti – facet 22

History:

William Gregor found titanium in 1791 when analyzing the mineral ilmenite. He concluded that it included iron oxide and also a 2nd oxide i beg your pardon he might not identify, and which he attributed come a brand-new element the he named menachite. In 1795, young name Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered titanium in the mineral rutile and also named the after the Titans of Greek mythology. Klaproth, top top becoming mindful of Gregor’s work, confirmed that the had discovered the same element.

Uses:

The main use of titanium is together titanium dioxide, provided as a white colours in plenty of applications including paint, toothpaste and also sunscreen. Titanium alloys are additionally used in the aerospace sector as they room light, solid and durable.

Display:


Titanium metal pellet and rod, titanium oxides – TiO (beige), Ti2O3 (purple), TiO2 (white, likewise known together titania), titania-containing sunscreen and also white paint, and rutilated quartz (quartz included rutile TiO2)


Vanadium – V – aspect 23

History:

In 1801, Andres Manuel del Rio found vanadium in one ore called brown command (now called vanadinite). He named the facet panchromium (meaning all-colours in Greek) as it created salts of many different colours. That then changed the name to erythronium (meaning red in Greek) as numerous vanadium salt turned red when heated. However, in 1805 it was declared that del Rio had mistaken chromium for a brand-new element, leading to del Rio come retract his discovery. In 1831, vanadium to be rediscovered through Nils Gabriel Sefstrom, and del Rio’s work was verified by Friedrich Wohler. Sefstrom named the aspect vanadium ~ the norseman goddess Vanadis, who among other points was the goddess of beauty, reflecting the selection of beautiful colours of vanadium compounds, and also because the price V was no in use. The surname rionium, honouring del Rio, was additionally proposed however not adopted.

Uses:

Vanadium is supplied in alloys to boost strength, most typically in steels, and in lighter titanium alloys because that the aerospace industry. Vanadium oxides are used as catalysts and as fixes for the dyeing of fabrics.

Display:


Vanadium crystals and also pieces, chromium-vanadium steel tools, vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3)Cl, vanadium oxides – VO2 (dark) and also V2O5 (orange)


Chromium – Cr – element 24

History:

Chromium was an initial investigated as it produces coloured minerals, which were provided as pigments. In 1761, Johan Gottlob Lehmann discovered an orange-red mineral he called siberian red lead (now referred to as crocoite, which is lead chromate) i beg your pardon was supplied as a colours in paints. In 1794, louis Nicolas Vauquelin experimented v the pigment and also showed that it included a brand-new element which that isolated in 1797. Chromium is named after the Greek indigenous chroma, an interpretation colour, owing to the colourful compounds it forms.

Uses:

The key use the chromium is in metallurgy, for chromium plating to develop a sleek appearance and prevent corrosion, and for do stainless steel which is roughly 11% chromium. It is likewise used for pigments and gives color to part gemstones, such together rubies and also emeralds.

Display:


Chromium steel piece and flakes, stainless steel nuts and bolts, chrome-plated plumbing fixtures, crocoite PbCrO4, rubies and a ruby wand Al2O3·Cr, and also paints through chromium colours – chrome yellow (PbCrO4) and chromium oxide eco-friendly (Cr2O3)


Manganese – Mn – aspect 25

History:

The manganese mineral pyrolusite (manganese dioxide, MnO2) was used since ancient times together a black color pigment and in glass making. It was originally identified as the feminine magnes, called after Magnesia in Greece where it was found, to identify it from the woman magnes, i m sorry is the steel mineral magnetite. Subsequently, it became known together magnesia, and also then magnesia negra, to distinguish it native the white magnesia alba, i beg your pardon is magnesium oxide. Later still, the name ended up being manganesum. In 1774, Carl Wilhelm Scheele used manganesum in the production of chlorine compounds and also proposed the presence of a brand-new element, which Johan Gottlieb Gahn secluded in the same year. The element was called manganese after ~ the mineral.

Uses:

The key use that manganese is in steel production, although other usual uses are aluminum alloys for cans and also alkali batteries.

Display:


Manganese steel pieces and also flakes, manganocalcite (Ca,Mn)CO3, manganese dioxide (magnesia negra), potassium permanganate crystals and also solution KMnO4, and also alkali batteries which contain manganese dioxide


Iron – Fe – facet 26

History:

Iron is the 4th most common aspect in the earth’s crust and was isolated indigenous ores at the begin of the Iron age when, being stronger, it changed copper alloys in the manufacturing of tools and also weapons. Because then a range of alloys such as steel and also cast steel were occurred for different uses. The English surname iron beginning from german isarn, which maybe derives from the Proto-Indo-European isero connected with holy, powerful or strong, referring to its strength as a metal. The price Fe derives native the Latin name for the metal, ferrum.

Uses:

Iron is the many widely used steel in the kind of various varieties of steel to rise its hardness. The is used in numerous industries consisting of construction, machinery, rail, automotive, aerospace and also ship-buildings. In blood, iron is had in haemoglobin.

Display:


Iron cube and pieces, steel round bearings, ferrite magnet Fe2O3, ferrofluid (magnetic liquid made that a suspension that magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles), alnico magnet (alloy comprise Fe, Al, Ni, Co) and also several iron minerals – pyrite (fool’s gold) FeS2, goethite on crocoite FeO(OH) PbCrO4, and black aegirine NeFeSi2O6


Cobalt – Co – facet 27

History:

Blue-coloured cobalt compounds have actually been used because the Bronze age as pigments or coloured glass. In the center ages, German miners offered the surname kobold to refer to cobalt ore (the mineral cobaltite CoAsS) an interpretation house goblin, native kobe (hut) and holt (goblin). The negative connotation occurred as the ore did not yield any known steels when smelted, yet instead created toxic arsenic oxide. There was some confusion regarding whether the blue colour of cobalt pigments was as result of the visibility of bismuth, however about 1735, George Brandt verified that a new metal to be responsible, i beg your pardon was called after the mineral.

Uses:

Cobalt’s usage in pigments and also glass is gone beyond by its use in alloys, for example, in the aerospace industry and also for prosthetics. The is additionally used in lithium-ion and nickel steel hydride batteries, and is found in cobalamin (vitamin B12).

Display:


Cobalt pieces, cobalt stole drill bits, alnico magnet (Fe, Al, Ni, Co alloy), blue cobalt glass, cobalt blue repaint CoAl2O4 and also cobalamin (Vitamin B12) C63H88CoN14O14P


Nickel – Ni – element 28

History:

Nickel was offered since old times, beginning in the Middle east in alloys through iron and later in China alloyed through copper, though its visibility in the alloys was probably unknown. In the middle periods in Germany the mineral nickeline (NiAs) was discovered and also mistaken because that a copper mineral. The fail to extract copper from it to be blamed on Nickel (a name used for a demon or the Devil) and also the mineral was named kupfernickel, meaning copper-demon. In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt effectively extracted a metal from kupfernickel, i beg your pardon he called nickel. The term kupfernickel currently refers to cupronickel, a copper-nickel alloy.

Uses:

Nickel is offered predominantly in the manufacturing of stainless steel and also other alloys such together nichrome used in heating elements, and cupronickel supplied in coins. Nickel is also used together plating as it protects from corrosion, and in rechargeable batteries.

Display:

Nickel cube and also pieces, nickel-coated whistle, Canadian nickels make of 100% nickel, and also Australian 50, 20 and also 10 cent coins do of cupronickel (75% Cu, 25% Ni), nichrome (80% Ni, 20% Cr) cable from a heater element, alnico magnet (Fe, Al, Ni, Co alloy), nickel metal hydride rechargeable batteries and hydrated nickel sulfate NiSO4

Copper – Cu – facet 29

History:

Copper is found on planet in its natural form, which led to it being supplied from primitive times, roughly 8000 BC. It is ultimately named ~ Cyprus i beg your pardon was an important source of copper in the roman inn era. The Greek word because that Cyprus Kyprios ended up being aes cyprium (meaning steel from Cyprus) and also then cuprum in Latin. The element symbol Cu is one abbreviation the cuprum.

Uses:

There are countless uses the copper, consisting of as a conductor because that heat and also electricity, and as an alloy for jewellery, coins, hardware and building materials.

Display:

Copper bar, circuit boards, pipe, pipe fittings, nails, wire and tape; various high copper-content coins including Australian pennies, 1 and 2 cent count, and $1 and $2 coins; shattuckite plancheite Cu5(SiO5)4(OH)2 CuSi8O22(OH)4·H20; and also various copper salts – copper(II) carbonate CuCO3, copper acetate Cu(CH3COO)2, copper(II) oxide CuO, copper sulfate CuSO4, copper(I) oxide Cu2O

Zinc – Zn – aspect 30

History:

Zinc was offered since old times, alloyed through copper to make brass. The beginning of the surname is unclear, and is likely to it is in the German indigenous Zinke definition prong or tooth, together metallic zinc crystals have a prong-like appearance.

Uses:

The key uses the zinc space for galvanization to protect other metals from corrosion, and for making alloys choose brass.

Display:

Zinc steel pellet and crystals in vial, galvanised metal, zinc plated nails and screws, brass threaded hexonagons (brass is typically one third zinc, two thirds copper), zinc oxide sunscreen, sphalerite ZnS/FeS and calcite CaCO3 mineral

Yttrium – Y – aspect 39

History:

In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius thought he had discovered a new tungsten mineral near the Swedish town of Ytterby, i m sorry he called ytterbite. In 1789, Johan Gadolin found a brand-new oxide in ytterbite, and also in 1797, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg shown his discovery and also named the oxide yttria. It to be inferred that a brand-new oxide should contain a new element, i m sorry was named yttrium complying with the convention whereby the oxide had actually an -a suffix, and also the metal an -ium suffix. The price Yt was initially used, however was changed by Y. That was ultimately realised the yttria was no an oxide the yttrium yet a mineral containing various other elements, and also it to be renamed gadolinite ~ Gadolin.

Uses:

Yttrium compound doped through other facets are offered as light resources – in the phosphors the CRT televisions (now obsolete), in fluorescent light bulbs, LED lights, and also lasers. Yttrium is additionally used in high-temperature superconductors.

Display:


Yttrium metal in vial, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser pole (Nd-YAG, Nd:Y3Al5O12) and also fluorescent desk lamp (cool white) containing europium-doped yttria phosphors Eu:Y2O3


Zirconium – Zr – aspect 40

History:

A variety of zirconium-containing minerals were well-known since ancient times, however, zirconium was only discovered as an aspect in 1789 by young name Heinrich Klaproth. He named the aspect zirkonerde ~ the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), which subsequently derives its surname from the Persian word zargun relenten the gold-like illustration of the mineral.

Uses:

Zirconium is used mainly as zircon or zirconia (ZrO2) because that high-temperature ceramics and furnaces.

Display:


Zirconium metal cube and also metal sponge, Cubic zirconia gemstones ZrO2, Zirconia cutting tool, Zirconia ceramic knife and also Zircon ZrSiO4


Niobium – Nb – element 41

History:

In 1801, Charles Hatchett found a new element in a mineral sample indigenous Connecticut. He called the mineral columbite, and the element colombium, Cb, after Columbia, the personification the the united States, showing the origin of the mineral. Subsequently, in 1809, william Hyde Wollaston proposed the columbium was not a brand-new element yet was in truth tantalum. In 1846, Heinrich rose proposed the tantalite, a tantalum mineral, contained more elements in enhancement to tantalum with comparable properties which he named after the youngsters of Tantalus in Greek mythology: niobium (after his daughter Niobe) and pelopium (after his kid Pelops). Several an ext elements, ilmenium and also dianium, were additionally proposed. Over the following 20 years, scientists verified that there were just two distinctive elements: tantalum and niobium, and that niobium had currently been discovered – it was columbium. The various other three proposed aspects turned out to be mixture of tantalum and niobium. The name niobium was provided in Europe whilst columbium was supplied in the US, till niobium ended up being the main name the the element in 1949.

Uses:

Niobium is mostly used in alloys such together structural steel, and also in other specific applications such together gas pipelines and also in the aerospace industry.

Display:


Niobium steel pellet and crystals, Anodised niobium pieces (various colours), and Niobium capacitors


Molybdenum – Mo – aspect 42

History:

The molybdenum mineral molybdenite (MoS2, previously referred to as molybdena) to be known and also used since ancient times however was confused with graphite, which to be itself believed to it is in a type of lead. Once it was identified from graphite it to be mistaken for the command mineral galena (PbS). In 1778 Carl Wilhelm Scheele concluded the molybdena differed native both graphite and galena, and also that it should be the ore that a new element i m sorry he called molybdenum. Words molybdenum derives native the Greek molybdos meaning lead, and reflects the historical confusion.

Uses:

Molybdenum is mostly used in different varieties of steel, supplied in construction and hardware.

Display:


Large and small molybdenum steel pellets, Molybdenite MoS2, Molybdenum stole lathe cut tool and also chisel


Technetium – Tc – aspect 43

History:

Technetium is the lightest facet with no steady isotopes and as such is not naturally found on planet (other 보다 in extremely little quantities as an intermediate decay product of various other unstable radioisotopes). Its presence was guess by Dmitri Mendeleev who called it ekamanganese (Em) but its excessive scarcity made it extremely an overwhelming to discover. There were countless candidates and also many different names given to this facet between 1828 and 1908, every one of which turned out to it is in errors: the an alleged polinium was in reality iridium, ilmenium and pelopium were niobium-tantalum alloys, davyum was an iridium-rhodium-iron alloy, lucium was in reality yttrium, and also nipponium was actually rhenium. A 1925 case of its discovery (named as masurium) could not it is in replicated and also it is uncertain if the result was correct. The recognised exploration was made in 1937 through Carlo Perrier and also Emilio Segre that isolated the element from the molybdenum components of a cyclotron. The components had end up being radioactive through the procgimpppa.orgre of the cyclotron and also produced the brand-new element through the decay of radioactive molybdenum. The name panormium to be proposed (after the Latin surname for Palermo in Sicily where they worked) however the aspect was called technetium after the Greek technitos an interpretation artificial or crafted, reflecting its production. The most stable isotope (97 and also 98) have actually half-lives of approximately 4 million years.

Uses:

The most usual use the technetium is in medical diagnostic scans, the which approximately 10 million are performed every year. The technetium-99m isotope is acquired through the decay of molybdenum-99, i beg your pardon is extract from nuclear fuel rods together a product that uranium fission.

Display: TBC

Ruthenium – Ru – element 44

History:

Ruthenium occurs normally as a platinum alloy in Russia and the Americas, and was used thus before its discovery. In 1807, Jedrzej Sniadecki claimed to have isolated this element and named the vestium after ~ the asteroid Vesta, however, this discovery was no confirmed, and he withdrew his claim. In 1827, Jons Berzelius and also Gottfried Osann disagreed on the outcomes of one experiment that may have led to its discovery – Berzelius claimed that no new elements to be discovered, conversely, Osann claimed three brand-new elements to be discovered and also named lock pluranium, ruthenium and also polinium, however, he to be unable come replicate his outcomes and additionally withdrew his claim. In 1844, karl Ernst Claus showed that Osann’s samples did without doubt contain this element, and also was able to isolate it from residues left end from the minting of platinum rubles. Claus offered it the surname ruthenium, after ~ Ruthenia, a Latin word for Rus, introduce to the area of west Russia/eastern Europe. Claus decided this name since he was from Russia, conversely, Osann, who was native Germany, had originally propose the name in referral to the Russian origin of the platinum the used.

Uses:

Ruthenium is used in electronic devices to boost the trust of electrical contacts and also electrodes, to make certain types of resistors, and in tough disc drives. That is additionally used as a catalyst.

Display:


Ruthenium steel beads, Ruthenium spark-plug, and also Resistors include ruthenium


Rhodium – Rh – aspect 45

History:

Rhodium was found in 1803 by william Hyde Wollaston as soon as working v platinum ore. With a series of metal-acid and precipitation reactions, the isolated two steels that had various chemical properties, palladium and also a new metal. In one of the precipitation measures he created hydrated Na3 which had a rose-red colour, and also from i m sorry he was able to extract the brand-new metal. He called the steel rhodium ~ the Greek rhodon, definition rose.

Uses:

Rhodium is provided in catalytic converters that transform harmful gases from car exhausts right into less harmful gases. That is likewise used come plate jewelry and in high temperature thermocouples.

Display:

Rhodium metalRhodium plated samples because that jewelleryMini catalytic convertor, include a Pt/Pd/Rh catalyst

Palladium – Pd – element 46

History:

In 1802, wilhelm Hyde Wollaston discovered palladium when exploring with platinum and named that after the asteroid Pallas which had been recently discovered, itself taking on one of the name of the Greek goddess Athena. He made the exploration by dissolving platinum in aqua regia and also was able to identify and also isolate palladium indigenous what stayed after the platinum had actually been gotten rid of through precipitation. Instead of announcing his discovery, the anonymously published the metal’s properties and made samples obtainable for sale. Richard Chevenix, a chemist, challenged the discovery and claimed the palladium was a platinum-mercury alloy. Wollaston climate anonymously tested people to develop the alloy and also offered a reward. In 1805, Wollaston announced that he had in fact found palladium.

Uses:

Palladium’s key use is in catalytic converters that transform harmful gases from automobile exhausts right into less harmful gases. That is additionally used in jewellery, and details applications prefer hydrogen fuel cells. Palladium bullion is traded together a commodity.

Display:

Palladium metalPalladium metal leaf in vial and also in picture frameMini catalytic convertor, comprise a Pt/Pd/Rh catalyst

Silver – Ag – element 47

History:

Silver can take place in pure form in the earth crust and also as such was known since prehistoric times. It was extracted native ore as at an early stage as the fourth millennium BC in Greece, and also silver coins ended up being common in ancient Greece and Rome, together did the usage of silver in other applications. Its name derives native the Proto-Germanic silabur which described the steel itself and also possibly money make of silver. The symbol Ag refers to the Latin and Greek names, argentum and argyros respectively, which derive from Proto-Indo-European words definition shiny or white metal.

Uses:

Silver is used for jewellery, cutlery and also other silverware and also decorative items. Photosensitive silver chemicals are used in photographic film, and silver iodide is supplied for cloud seeding to cause rain. Silver has actually the lowest electric resistivity of every metals and also is provided in various electronics applications. That is additionally used because that making mirrors, together a food additive, and also in medical applications to protect against infections. Its use in currency is all yet phased out, but silver bullion is traded as a commodity.

Display:

Pure silver- coinAustralian 1966 50 cent coins and also pre-decimal florins make of silver-copper alloys.Silver-plated gobletsSilver nanoparticle sleep spraySilver bromide/silver iodide photographic filmerMirror

Cadmium – Cd – element 48

History:

Cadmium was found in 1817 separately by Friedrich Stromeyer and also Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, together an impurity in the mineral calamine (zinc carbonate). It was named after kadmeia, meaning calamine in Greek, after Kadmos the superordinary founder the the city the Thebes, which was an ancient resource of the mineral.

Uses:

Cadmium forms colourful pigments offered in paints. The was also used in rechargeable nickel cadmium batteries however its usage is usually being phased out because of the toxicity the its compounds. Remaining uses are in solar panels, corrosion resistant coatings and as control rods in nuclear reactors.

Display:

Cadmium metal rodNickel-cadmium rechargeable batteriesCadmium yellow paint containing cadmium sulfide CdS

Hafnium – Hf – aspect 72

History:

Whilst Dmitiri Mendeleev suspect the presence of facet 72 in 1871, he mistakenly proposed the lanthanum was aspect 72. Henry Moseley had the ability to measure the atomic variety of various aspects using X-ray spectroscopy and also showed that aspect 72 was yet to be discovered. In 1914, Georges Urbain declared that he had discovered element 72 in 1907, i beg your pardon he called celtium, however, this to be rejected top top the basis of X-ray spectroscopy. In 1922 Urbain re-asserted his claim yet was again rejected after ~ Dirk Coster and also George de Hevesy uncovered the facet as one impurity in the mineral zircon (ZrSiO4) making use of X-ray spectroscopy. They named it hafnium after the Latin name, Hafnia, the Copenhagen, where their discovery was made. Hafnium was the last element with stable isotopes to be discovered.

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Uses:

The main application that hafnium is in regulate rods for nuclear reactors. Various other niche applications in aerospace parts and electronics also exist.