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There room a few groups of share classifications, yet in this post, ns will emphasis on those most familiar: the synovial joints. Synovial joints are characterized by the synovial fluid present in the joint capsule the helps come lubricate the joint. The stability of a joint depends on the form of the joint itself as well as its surrounding structures. This has the skeleton that comprise the joint, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. Cartilage top top the bony surfaces that consist of the joint assist to boost the surface area the the joint (thereby boosting the stability), and/or cushion the joint. Muscles, tendons, and also ligaments help to produce support around the joint. The form of the bones assist to dictate which motions it will certainly allow.

You are watching: Circumduction is limited to ball-and-socket joints.

Types the Synovial Joints

Within the group of synovial joints, the shape of the articular surface of the joint, and the movement enabled at every joint assist to further breakdown joint categories.


1. Ball and also Socket Joints: these joints enable for the greatest range of motion. The joint entails a round fitting right into a concave surface. Due to the fact that these joints allow for more motion, they room at better risk because that instability. Ball and also socket joints permit for movement in countless planes, and circumduction.

The shoulder and also hip room both ball and socket joints.

2. Condyloid Joints: allow for flexion, extension, and some lateral activity at the joint. Over there is additionally some circumduction the takes place. The circumduction is limited however, because the shape of the share is oval contrasted to the an ext mobile ball and socket joints. Fingers should have the ability to move in a one motion, although it is small. Condyloid joints are likewise referred to together ellipsoidal joints.

The base of each finger is a condyloid joint.

3. Saddle Joints: These joints room made of two concave and also convex surfaces that intersect. Saddle joints allow for flexion, extension, and also lateral movement. Saddle joints may present as a condyloid joint, but if you try to move your ignorance in a perfect circle, friend will notice its movement will not be smooth prefer the circular movement possible with a finger.

The base of the ignorance is an example of a saddle joint.

4. Hinge Joints: Hinge joints allow for activity in one airplane only. Think of a door hinge. It enables the door to open and close, yet not move up or down.

Knees and also elbows space some common examples the hinge joints.

5. Pivot Joints: This form of joint allows for rotation. Unlike plenty of other synovial joints, it does not allow for any flexion or extension.

The very first two cervical skeleton (the atlas & axis) form a pivot joint. The atlas sit on height of the axis and allows a “no” motion of the head (left & ideal rotation)


Improving stability

Training the muscles roughly a joint help to boost its stability. The stronger the muscles, the an ext control they have actually over the activities of the joint. A muscle imbalance can also lead to share laxity.

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Post injury, cultivate will normally involve both flexibility and also strength maintain of a joint. The adaptability training is to assist regain or enhance a joint’s selection of movement for everyday activities. The toughness training is both to help with functional movements alongside building and also maintaining share stability.

For example, ns dislocated my shoulder in the autumn of 2014. I performed variety of motion and also strength practice to restore my functionality. As I progressed, ns was maybe to do exercises v a broader range of activity to proceed improving mine stability. The exercises also involved numerous directions that movement. Training mine shoulder this method absolutely lugged up the security (and is still helping to store it stable). Clearly it will constantly be at risk for some instability injuries, yet training that safely helps me to stop such instances!



In my last blog post, i explored hypermobility of joints. Overstretching a joint have the right to decrease its as whole stability, and overtraining a joint without stretching have the right to decrease its range of motion. There is always a happy medium between stretching and also training the muscles because that your ideal function. As always, make certain you large what friend strengthen and strengthen what girlfriend stretch!


Adrienne Lema BPE Student


1. Classification of Joints on the basis of Structure and also Function. Boundless Biology. Boundless, (21 Jul. 2015). Recall 30 Jul. 2015 native

2. Joints the the Skeleton, , Retrieved native

Image References:

1. Joints, Gelenke Zeichnung, (2005) Retrieved indigenous Lema, Adrienne (2014)3. Lema, Adrienne (2014)4. Lema, Adrienne (2014)

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