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Date:May 10, 1857 - July 8, 1859 ...(Show more)Location:AgraDelhiIndiaKanpurLucknow...(Show more)Participants:Mughal dynastyUnited Kingdom...(Show more)Context:British EmpireWestern colonialismEast India CompanyBritish raj...(Show more)Major Events:Siege of LucknowSiege that Delhi...(Show more)

Indian Mutiny, also called Sepoy Mutiny or First war of Independence, widespread but unsuccessful rebellion versus British dominion in India in 1857–59. Begun in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British eastern India Company, it spread to Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. In India it is often called the first War that Independence and other similar names.

Background

To for the rebellion just as a sepoy mutiny is come underestimate the root reasons leading to it. British paramountcy—i.e., the belief in British dominance in Indian political, economic, and social life—had been introduced in India about 1820. The British progressively used a variety of techniques to usurp manage of the Hindu princely says that were under what were called subsidiary partnerships with the British. Almost everywhere the old Indian aristocracy was being changed by british officials. One significant British method was referred to as the doctrine of lapse, an initial perpetrated by mr Dalhousie in the late 1840s. It associated the brothers prohibiting a Hindu ruler without a herbal heir indigenous adopting a successor and, after the ruler passed away or abdicated, linking his land. Come those troubles may be added the cultivation discontent that the Brahmans, countless of whom had been dispossessed the their profits or had actually lost profitable positions.


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Another serious issue was the raising pace that Westernization, through which Hindu culture was being affected by the development of west ideas. Missionaries were an overwhelming the religious beliefs that the Hindus. The humanitarian movement brought about reforms that went deeper 보다 the politics superstructure. Throughout his tenure as governor-general the India (1848–56), mr Dalhousie made initiatives toward emancipating women and also had presented a bill to remove all legit obstacles to the remarriage of Hindu widows. Converts come Christianity were to share v their Hindu family members in the home of the household estate. There to be a widespread id that the british aimed in ~ breaking under the caste system. The introduction of Western methods of education and learning was a direct challenge to orthodoxy, both Hindu and Muslim.

The mutiny broke out in the Bengal army because that was just in the military sphere that Indians to be organized. The pretext for rebellion was the arrival of the new Enfield rifle. To fill it, the sepoys had actually to bite off the end of lubricated cartridges. A rumour spread amongst the sepoys the the grease used to lubricate the cartridges was a mixture that pigs’ and cows’ lard; thus, to have oral contact with it was an humiliation to both Muslims and also Hindus. There is no conclusive proof that either of these materials was actually offered on any of the cartridges in question. However, the perception that the cartridges to be tainted included to the larger suspicion the the British were trying to weaken Indian timeless society. For your part, the brother did no pay enough attention to the growing level of sepoy discontent.


The rebellion

In late March 1857 a sepoy named Mangal Pandey struck British officers at the armed forces garrison in Barrackpore. He was arrested and then executed by the british in early April. Later in April sepoy troopers at Meerut refuse the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were provided long jail terms, fettered, and put in jail. This penalty incensed your comrades, who rose on may 10, shot their British officers, and marched to Delhi, wherein there to be no europe troops. There the neighborhood sepoy garrison joined the Meerut men, and also by nightfall the aged pensionary Mughal emperor Bahādur shah II had actually been nominally revitalized to strength by a tumultuous soldiery. The seizure that Delhi detailed a emphasis and collection the pattern for the totality mutiny, i beg your pardon then spread throughout northern India. Through the exemption of the Mughal emperor and his sons and Nana Sahib, the embraced son that the deposed Maratha peshwa, nobody of the important Indian princes join the mutineers.


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Mangal Pandey
Image that Mangal Pandey on a postage stamp issued by the federal government of India in 1984.
Courtesy of picture Division, to adjust of information & Broadcasting, federal government of India

From the time of the mutineers’ seizure that Delhi, the brothers operations come suppress the mutiny were separated into three parts. An initial came the desperate struggles at Delhi, Kanpur, and Lucknow during the summer; then the operations roughly Lucknow in the winter of 1857–58, directed by sir Colin Campbell; and also finally the “mopping up” projects of teacher Hugh climbed in beforehand 1858. Tranquility was officially declared on July 8, 1859.

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A grim feature of the mutiny to be the ferocity that accompanied it. The mutineers generally shot your British police officers on rising and also were responsible because that massacres in ~ Delhi, Kanpur, and also elsewhere. The killing of women and children furious the British, yet in fact some brother officers started to take significant measures before they knew that any type of such murders had actually occurred. In the end the reprisals far outweighed the initial excesses. Hundreds of sepoys to be bayoneted or fired indigenous cannons in a frenzy of brother vengeance (though some British officers did protest the bloodshed).