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AlgaeRooftop fungus that have the right to leave dark stains ~ above roofing.

Angled FastenersRoofing nails and staples driven into the decks at angles no parallel come the deck.

Apron FlashingMetal flashing offered at chimney fronts.

AlligatoringShrinkage cracking of the bituminous surface ar of built-up or smooth surface roofing, developing a patter that deep crack resembling an alligator hide.

AsphaltA bituminous waterproofing agent supplied in various species of roofing materials. That is a very viscous hydrocarbon created from the residuum left after ~ the distillation of petroleum.

Asphalt Concrete PrimerAsphalt based primer offered to ready concrete and also metal because that asphalt sealant.

Asphalt Plastic CementAsphalt based sealant material, conference ASTM D4586 type I or II. Used to seal and adhere roofing materials. Likewise referred to together mastic, blackjack, roof tar, and also bull.

ASTMThe American society for Testing and also Materials. Organization that sets requirements for a wide variety of materials, consisting of roofing.


BallastAn anchoring material (such together rock, gravel, pavers) offered to resist wind uplift pressures of roof membrane.

Base FlashingBase flashing develops the upturned edge of watertight membrane.

BattenCommonly described as purlins. Battens are typically 1”x2”x4” wood strips nailed come the roof decking or rafters because that the roofing material to it is in attached to. This is to provide a secure basic to anchor the roofing products to since OSB will organize screws efficiently.

Blister / BlisteringA spongy raised part of roofing membrane together a an outcome of push from entrapped air or water vapor. In shingles blisters are caused by either moisture under the product or humidity trapped inside the material.

Blow-OffsWhen shingles are subjected to high winds, and also are compelled off a roof deck.

BucklingWhen a pucker or ripple influence shingles or their underlayments.

Built-up roofing (BUR)A constant semi functional roof extending consisting the laminations or plies of saturated or coated felts alternated v layers of bitumen.


Cant StripA constant strip of triangular cross-section, fitted right into the angle developed by a structural deck and also a wall surface or other vertical surface, and used to administer gradual shift for base flashing and horizontal roof membrane.

CaulkTo fill a joint with mastic or asphalt cement to protect against leaks.

Class “A”Highest fire-resistance rating because that roofing. Suggests that roofing material is able to resist severe exposure to fire originating indigenous sources exterior the building.

Class “B”Fire-resistance rating that shows roofing materials are may be to stand up to moderate exposure come fire originate from sources outside the building.

Class “C” Fire-resistance rating that indicates roofing products are may be to resist light exposure come fire originating from external the building.

Closed reduced ValleyA shingle sink installation an approach where one roof plane’s shingles totally cover the others’s. The op great is reduced to enhance the valley lines.

Collar/BootPre-formed flange inserted over a vent pipeline to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening. Likewise referred to together a pipe boot.

Counter FlashingThe steel or siding product that is mounted over the roof-top basic flashing systems. Respond to flashing is installed on the exposed edges and also joints of the base flashing to protect against water from moving behind the basic flashing.

CrackA rest in a roofing membrane together a result of flexing, often developing at a ridge or wrinkle.

Cricket A peaked water diverter installed behind chimneys and other huge roof projections. Effectively diverts water roughly projections and prevent ice buildup of snow and also ice.

CuppingWhen shingles are improperly set up over an existing roof or space over-exposed, castle may type a curly or cup. May also be because of a manufacturing defect.


DeckThe substrate over which roofing is applied. Typically plywood, lumber boards, or planks. A advertisement roof deck may consist of metal or concrete.

DormerA elevated roof extending out that a larger roof plane.

Drip EdgeAn installed lip that keeps shingles up off the deck at edges, and also extends shingles the end over eaves and gutters, and prevents water from returning back into roof. Prolongs life-expectancy of fascia and also exterior finishes.


EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer)A synthetic rubber sheet used in single ply roof membrane.

Expansion JointA intended separation of 2 roof locations to allow expansion and contraction motions of the parts.

EavesThe roof edge indigenous the fascia to the structure’s external wall. Generally the an initial three feet across a roof. This is the security overhang at the reduced edge of a sloped roof.

EWAEngineered lumber Association, Tests and sets standards for all arrays of plywoods provided in the U.S.

ExposureArea’s ~ above a roof that space exposed to organic elements.


FasciaThe complete member spanning the edge or eaves the a flat or sloping roof or roof overhang.

FastenersNails or staples used to certain roofing come the deck.

FeltA versatile sheet the is saturated with asphalt and used together an underlayment, sometimes called “tar paper.”

Fiberglas MatFibers that room wove and also condensed right into strong, long lasting mats for usage in assorted roofing materials.

FishmouthAn opening of the lapped leaf of used felt in built-up roofing as result of adhesion failure.

FlangeMetal pan extending up or down a roof slope around flashing pieces. Usually at chimneys and also plumbing vents.

FlashingMaterials provided to waterproof a roof around any type of projections. Connecting tools that seal membrane joints, drains, gravel stops and other areas where membrane is interrupted.

Flashing CementSealant designed for use around flashing areas, commonly thicker 보다 plastic cement.


GableThe upper part of a sidewall that concerns a triangular point at the ridge of a sloping roof. Trim that goes ~ above this component of a roof is referred to as gable or rake trim.

Gable RoofTraditional roof layout where two roof planes fulfill a ridge heat of equal size. Has a gable each end.

Gambrel RoofA type of roof containing two sloping planes of various pitch on each side the the ridge. The lower airplane has a steeper slope than the upper. Consists of a gable at each end.

GranulesCrushed rock the is coated through ceramic coating and also fired, offered as peak surface ~ above shingles.

Gravel StopFlanged device, generally metallic, designed come prevent loose aggregate native washing off roof. It also provides a finished edge information for built-up roofing assembly.


Hand-SealingThis technique is used on an extremely steep slopes, high wind areas, and also when installing in cold weather to ensure that a suitable seal is made.

High NailingWhen shingles space nailed or fastened above the manufacture’s stated nail location.

HipThe inclined exterior angle created by the intersection of 2 sloping roof planes. Operation from the ridge come the eaves.

Hip LegsThe down-slope ridges on i know well roofs.

Hip RoofA roof with four roof plane coming with each other at a peak and also four separate hip legs. This kind of roof does not contain a gable.


Ice Dam When a snow pack melts ~ above a roof and re-freezes at the eave areas. Ice cream dams force water come back-up under shingles and also cause leakage. Ice cream dams may be resulted in by a roof without suitable ventilation.

Intake Ventilation The part of a ventilation mechanism used to draw fresh waiting in. Typically vents installed in the soffit or follow me the eaves that a building.


L-FlashingContinuous metal flashing consisting of numerous feet that metal. Offered at horizontal walls, pre-fabed come resemble the letter L.

Laminated ShinglesShingles made type two separate pieces that space laminated together. This shingles are also referred to as dimensional and/or architectural shingles.

Laps / Lap SeamsThe locations on a roof whereby roll roofing products (including underlayments) overlap one an additional when installed.

Lean-to RoofA roof through one slope only that is built against a higher wall.

Low steep ApplicationsMethods of installing roofing product on roof slopes in between 1-2 inches every foot.

Low SlopesRoof pitches less than 4/12 are generally considered low sloped roofs. Only specific roofing applications have the right to be applied on roofs v slopes that 2/12 – 4/12. Normally shingles can not be installed at slopes much less than 2/12 (varies through city/county structure code requirements).


MansardA roof architecture with a virtually vertical roof aircraft that ties right into a roof plane of much less slope in ~ its peak. This form of roof consists of no gables.

MatsBase product of shingles and certain rolled roofing products.

Modified BitumenAsphalt through the addition of polymer amendment to boost cold temperature flexibility and warm temperature flow resistance and stability. Reinforcement material is do of polyester or fiberglass.


Nail guide LinePainted heat on laminated shingles, to help in appropriate placement of fasteners.

Nail-PopWhen a nail not fully driven into roofing material and also sits up turn off the roof deck.

NestingInstalling a 2nd layer the shingles aligning coursed with the initial roof to protect against shingle cupping.


Open ValleyValley installed using metal down the center of the sink of the roof.

Organic MatMat product made indigenous recycled wood pulp and paper.

Organic ShinglesShingles are made from organic (paper) mats.

OSBOriented Strand Board. A decking make from hardwood chips and lamination glues.

OverdrivenThe term used for fasteners propelled through roofing product with too lot force, breaking the roofing material/materials.

OverexposedInstalling shingle coursed higher than your intended exposure.

OverhangThe section of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior wall surfaces of a building.


PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) A share term for single ply plastic paper membrane. The seams space fused by solvent or hot-air welding techniques.

Parapet The part of the wall entirely over the roof.

PitchRefers to the incline ~ above the roof. The variety of inches climb per 12 inches horizontal. Example: 2/12 means that there is 2 (2) inches climb per twelve (12) inch horizontal.

Plumbing Vent FlashingPrevents rainwater from running right into holes cut for tube in the roof. This flashing is offered according to the size of the vent pipe and also the roof angle. Roofing material is mounted over the flashing.

PlywoodPlywood is regularly used because that roof decks. The is a strong, durable and lightweight lumber material. The thickness the plywood depends on the spacing the the rafters.

PondingThe repertoire of water in shallow pools on the roof surface.

PurlinHorizontal lengths that material, timber or metal, that space affixed come the roof and also to i m sorry the finished roofing material is enclosed to.


Rake EdgeThe upright edge of gable style roof planes.

RecoverThe environment of a new roof system over one existing system without remove the currently roofing system. Described as an overlay.

Re-roofingInstalling a brand-new roof mechanism on an existing framework that is not newly built.

Ridge The horizontal line created by the time of 2 sloping planes, particularly the line created by the surface at the height of a roof.

Rigid VentHard plastic ridge vent material.

RiseThe vertical street from the eaves heat to the ridge.

Roof LouversRooftop rectangle-shaped shaped roof vents. Additionally called box vents, mushroom vents, airhawks, soldier vents.

Roof PlaneA roofing area defined by having 4 separate edges. One next of a gable, hip, or mansard roof.

RunThe horizontal street from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span.


Self-SealantSealant installed on shingles. After ~ installation, heat and sun will certainly activate sealant to seal the shingles to every other.

SelvageThe non exposed room on rolling roofing there is no granules. Designed for installation come sealant.

SheathingExterior grade boards provided as a roof deck material.

Shed RoofRoof framework of single roof plane. That is one area the doe not tie into any type of other roofs. Does no contain any type of hip, ridges, valleys or gables.

Side LapsThe area on rolled roofing material where one roll overlaps the rolled product beneath it. Likewise called the selvage leaf on rolling roofing.

Side wall surfaces Area whereby a vertical roof plane meets a vertical wall. Such as on the sides of dormers, etc.

SlopeThe ratio between the steps of the rise and also the horizontal span.

SoffitThe end up on the underside the a roof overhang.

Soffit Ventilation intake ventilation set up under the eaves, or in ~ the roof edge.

SpanThe horizontal distance from eaves come eaves.

Starter strip This the an initial course that roofing mounted on a new asphalt roof. This is periodically trimmed native the main roof material.

Steep slope RoofingGenerally every slopes/pitches greater than 4/12 are described as steep slopes.

Step Flashing Metal flashing pieces set up at sidewalls and chimneys because that waterproofing.

SquareOne roofing square is equal to 100 square feet – 10’ x 10’ area.


TabThe bottom portion of a classic shingle be separate by the shingle cut-outs.

Tear-OffRemoval of present roofing products on roof under to the deck. This consists of removing existing underlayment.

TelegraphingWhen shingles show signs that unevenness as result of the underlayment or existing shingles beneath them.

Tongue and also GrooveIf a roof deserve to be watched on the underside such together from an interior ceiling view, tongue and groove is used in place of plywood or OSB. That is a timber decking that provides an excellent insulation without extr rigid roof insulation in middle climates.

TransitionsWhen a roof airplane ties into one more roof plane that has actually a different pitch or slope.


UnderdrivenDescription for a fastener that is not totally drive do the washing up to the shingle surface.

UnderlaymentsAsphalt based rolled materials designed to be mounted under main roofing product to serve as added protection.


ValleyThe “V” developed where 2 sloping roofs meet. This is where two roofs join at one angle.

VaporTerm offered to explain moisture laden air.

VentAny outlet because that air the protrudes v the roof deck such as a pipeline or stack. Any type of devise mounted on the roof, gable or soffit because that the function of ventilating the underside that the roof deck.


Warm WallThe finished wall inside of a structure, provided in roofing to determine how much up the deck to download waterproof underlayments in ~ eaves.

WarrantyThe created promise come the owner because that materials and also labor.

Waterproof UnderlaymentsModified bitumen based roofing underlayments. Designed to seal to timber decks and also waterproof crucial leaks areas.

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Woven ValleysThe technique of installing valleys through laying one shingle end the other up the valley center.