The relational data version was introduced by C. F. Codd in 1970. Currently, the is the most widely offered data model.

You are watching: A record (row) is a collection of related ________.

The relational version has detailed the communication for:

Research ~ above the concept of data/relationship/constraintNumerous database design methodologiesThe typical database access language called structured questions language (SQL)Almost all contemporary commercial database monitoring systems

The relational data model describes the civilization as “a collection of inter-related relations (or tables).”

Fundamental concepts in the Relational Data Model


relation, also well-known as a table or file, is a subset that the Cartesian product the a perform of domains characterized by a name. And within a table, each row represents a group of related data values. A row, or record, is also known together a tuple. The columns in a table is a field and also is additionally referred to together an attribute. Friend can likewise think of the this way: an attribute is used to define the record and a record consists of a collection of attributes.

The steps listed below outline the logic between a relation and also its domains.

Given n domains are denoted by D1, D2, … DnAnd r is a relation identified on this domainsThen r ⊆ D1×D2×…×Dn


A database is created of lot of tables and also each table hold the data. Figure 7.1 reflects a database that has three tables.

Figure 7.1. Database with 3 tables.


A database stores pieces of information or facts in an organized way. Understanding exactly how to use and also get the many out that databases calls for us to recognize that technique of organization.

The primary storage systems are called columns or fields or attributes. These house the straightforward components the data into which your content deserve to be damaged down. Once deciding which areas to create, you have to think generically about your information, because that example, drawing out the typical components of the information that you will keep in the database and avoiding the specifically, that differentiate one item native another.

Look at the example of one ID map in number 7.2 to watch the relationship in between fields and their data.

Figure 7.2. Instance of an ID card by A. Watt.


A domain is the initial sets of atom values offered to design data. By atomic value, we typical that each worth in the domain is indivisible as much as the relational model is concerned. For example:

The domain of Marital Status has actually a collection of possibilities: Married, Single, Divorced.The domain of shift has the set of all possible days: Mon, Tue, Wed….The domain of salary is the set of every floating-point numbers greater than 0 and also less than 200,000.The domain of an initial Name is the set of personality strings the represents names of people.

In summary, a domain is a collection of acceptable worths that a tower is enabled to contain. This is based on various properties and the data form for the column. We will comment on data species in one more chapter.


Just as the contents of any one document or item demands to be broken down into its constituent bits of data for storage in the fields, the link in between them likewise needs come be obtainable so the they have the right to be reconstituted into their entirety form. Records enable us to carry out this. Records contain fields that are related, such together a client or one employee. As detailed earlier, a tuple is an additional term offered for record.

Records and fields kind the communication of every databases. A simple table offers us the clearest photo of how records and also fields work-related together in a database storage project.

Figure 7.3. Instance of a straightforward table through A. Watt.

The straightforward table example in number 7.3 shows us how fields can organize a variety of various sorts the data. This one has:

A record ID field: this is an ordinal number; that data type is an integer. A PubDate field: this is displayed as day/month/year; the data type is date. An writer field: this is displayed as Initial. Surname; its data form is text. A Title ar text: complimentary text have the right to be entered here.

You have the right to command the database come sift v its data and organize the in a particular way. For example, you can request the a selection of records be minimal by date: 1. All before a provided date, 2. All after a given date or 3. All between two offered dates. Similarly, friend can pick to have records sorted by date. Because the field, or record, containing the data is set up as a date field, the database reads the info in the day field not simply as numbers separated by slashes, but rather, as days that must it is in ordered follow to a calendar system. 


The degree is the number of attributes in a table. In our instance in number 7.3, the level is 4.

See more: In Excel The Intersection Of A Row And A Column In Excel Is Known As A?

Properties that a Table

A table has actually a name the is unique from all other tables in the database.There are no duplicate rows; each heat is distinct.Entries in columns space atomic. The table does not contain repeating groups or multivalued attributes.Entries from columns space from the same domain based upon their data kind including:number (numeric, integer, float, smallint,…)character (string)datelogical (true or false)Operations combining various data types are disallowed.Each attribute has actually a distinct name.The succession of columns is insignificant.The sequence of rows is insignificant.